The familial amyloid neuropathies (or familial amyloidotic neuropathies, neuropathic heredofamilial amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy) are a rare group of autosomal dominant diseases wherein the autonomic nervous system and/or other nerves are compromised by protein aggregation and/or amyloid fibril formation.
The aggregation of one precursor protein leads to peripheral neuropathy and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. These proteins include: transthyretin (ATTR, the most commonly implicated protein), apolipoprotein A1, and gelsolin.
Due to the rareness of the other types of familial neuropathies, transthyretin amyloidogenesis-associated polyneuropathy should probably be considered first.
"FAP-I" and "FAP-II" are associated with transthyretin. (Senile systemic amyloidosis is also associated with transthyretin aggregation.)
"FAP-III" is also known as "Iowa-type", and involves apolipoprotein A1.
"FAP-IV" is also known as "Finnish-type", and involves gelsolin.
Fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1, and lysozyme are associated with a closely related condition, familial visceral amyloidosis.
Liver transplantation has proven to be effective for ATTR familial amyloidosis due to Val30Met mutation.
Alternatively, a European Medicines Agency approved drug Tafamidis or Vyndaqel now exists which stabilizes transthyretin tetramers comprising wild type and different mutant subunits against amyloidogenesis halting the progression of peripheral neuropathy and autonomic nervous system dysfunction.
External links