Fan fiction

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Fan fiction or fanfiction (also abbreviated to fan fic, fanfic or fic) is fiction about characters or settings from an original work of fiction, created by fans of that work rather than by its creator. It is a popular form of fan labor, particularly since the advent of the internet.

Fan fiction is rarely commissioned or authorized by the original work's creator or publisher, and is rarely professionally published. It may or may not infringe on the original author's copyright, depending on the jurisdiction and on such questions as whether or not it qualifies as "fair use" (see Legal issues with fan fiction). Attitudes of authors and copyright owners of original works to fan fiction have ranged from encouragement to rejection or legal action.

Fan fiction is defined by being both related to its subject's canonical fictional universe (often referred to as "canon") and simultaneously existing outside it.[1] Most fan fiction writers assume that their work is read primarily by other fans, and therefore presume that their readers have knowledge of the canon universe (created by a professional writer) in which their works are based.

History[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Following the popularity of Samuel Richardson's 1740 novel Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded, a number of unauthorized sequels were published.[2] Similar to fan fiction works, these sequels elaborated on Pamela's life after the events of the novel.

As children and young adults, Charlotte Brontë and her siblings wrote many stories and novels detailing fantasy adventures of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington and his two sons, Arthur and Charles. Later tales focused on Arthur, who became an almost super-heroic figure, the Duke of Zamorna. The Bronte juvenilia are an early example of "real person fan fiction".[3]

The turn of the 20th century saw parodies and revisions of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland by authors including Frances Hodgson Burnett and E. Nesbit. In addition, there were several fan-authored versions of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories and the Great Game, in which Holmes and Watson are treated as real, with Conan Doyle merely as Watson's literary agent, is an extended form of fan fiction posing as factual analysis.[citation needed]

Modern phenomenon[edit]

The Star Trek fanzine Spockanalia contained the first fan fiction in the modern sense of the term.

The term "fan fiction" has been attested in print as early as 1939; in this earliest known citation, it is used in a disparaging way to refer to amateurish science fiction (as opposed to "pro fiction").[4] The term also appears in the 1944 Fancyclopedia, an encyclopedia of fandom jargon. It is defined there as "fiction about fans, or sometimes about pros, and occasionally bringing in some famous characters from [science fiction] stories." The book also mentions that the term is "[s]ometimes improperly used to mean fan science fiction, that is, ordinary fantasy published in a fan magazine."[4][5]

The modern phenomenon of fan fiction as an expression of fandom and fan interaction was popularized and defined via Star Trek fandom and their fanzines published in the 1960s. The first Star Trek fanzine, Spockanalia (1967), contained some fan fiction; many others followed its example.[6]:1 These fanzines were produced via offset printing and mimeography, and mailed to other fans or sold at science fiction conventions for a small fee to help recoup costs. Unlike other aspects of fandom, women dominated fan fiction authoring; 83% of Star Trek fan fiction authors were female by 1970, and 90% by 1973.[7] One scholar states that fan fiction "fill[s] the need of a mostly female audience for fictional narratives that expand the boundary of the official source products offered on the television and movie screen."[8]

Fan fiction has become more popular and widespread since the advent of the World Wide Web; according to one estimate, fan fiction comprises one third of all content about books on the Web.[9] In addition to traditional fanzines and conventions, Usenet group electronic mailing lists were established for fan fiction as well as fan discussion. Online, searchable fan fiction archives were also established. The online archives were initially non-commercial hand-tended and fandom- or topic-specific. These archives were followed by non-commercial automated databases. In 1998, the not-for-profit site FanFiction.Net came online, which allowed anyone to upload content in any fandom.[10] The ability to self-publish fan fiction at an easily accessible common archive that did not require insider knowledge to join, and the ability to review the stories directly on the site, became popular quite quickly.[11] One popular example of modern fan fiction is E.L. James' 50 Shades Of Grey. It was originally written as fan fiction for the hit series of books and movies, Twilight. [12]

On May 22, 2013, the online retailer Amazon.com established a new publishing service, Kindle Worlds. This service would enable fan fiction stories of certain licensed media properties to be sold in the Kindle Store with terms including 35% of net sales for works of 10,000 words or more and 20% for short fiction ranging from 5000 to 10,000 words. However, this arrangement includes restrictions on content, copyright violations, poor document formatting and/or using misleading titles.[13]

Japanese dōjinshi[edit]

A similar trend in Japan also began appearing around the 1960s and 1970s, where independently published manga and novels, known as dōjinshi, are frequently published by dōjin circles; many of these dōjinshi are based on existing manga, anime, and video game franchises. Manga authors like Shotaro Ishinomori and Fujiko Fujio formed dōjin groups such as Fujio's New Manga Party (新漫画党 Shin Manga-tō?). At this time dōjin groups were used by artists to make a professional debut. This changed in the coming decades with dōjin groups forming as school clubs and the like. This culminated in 1975 with the Comiket in Tokyo.

Categories and types[edit]

Fan fiction can be categorized in a number of ways. Some of these categories are similar to original fiction (e.g. romance); some are specialized (e.g. Mary Sue stories). Please note: these categories apply to western fandoms. Fandoms in other parts of the world have different conventions.[citation needed]

Stories are also categorized by their relationship to canon.[14]

See also: Slash fiction and Femslash

Mary Sue is a trope originating in Star Trek fan fiction that has crossed over to the mainstream, at least among editors and writers. In much early Trek fanfic, a common plot was a minor member of the USS Enterprise's crew saving the life of Captain Kirk or Mister Spock, often being rewarded with a sexual relationship as a result. A Mary Sue is an idealized character representing the author.[15]

Interactivity in the online era[edit]

Reviews can be given by both anonymous and registered users of most sites, and sites are often programmed to notify the author of new feedback, making them a common way for readers and authors online to communicate directly.[16] This system is intended for a type of bond between the reader and the writer, as well as helping the author improve his or her writing skills through constructive criticism, enabling him or her to produce a better work next time.[17][unreliable source?] Occasionally unmoderated review systems are abused to send flames, spam or trolling messages. As a result, the author of the story can either disable or enable anonymous reviews, depending on his/her preference. Internet fan fiction gives young writers a wider audience for their literary efforts than ever before, resulting in improved literacy.[18]

Legality[edit]

Fan fiction is a derivative work under United States copyright law.[19]

Some argue that fan fiction does not fall under fair use.[20] The 2009 ruling by United States District Court judge Deborah A. Batts, permanently prohibiting publication in the United States of a book by a Swedish writer whose protagonist is a 76-year-old version of Holden Caulfield of The Catcher in the Rye, may be seen as upholding this position regarding publishing fan fiction, as the judge stated, "To the extent Defendants contend that 60 Years and the character of Mr. C direct parodied comment or criticism at Catcher or Holden Caulfield, as opposed to Salinger himself, the Court finds such contentions to be post-hoc rationalizations employed through vague generalizations about the alleged naivety of the original, rather than reasonably perceivable parody."[21]

Others such as the Organization for Transformative Works uphold the legality of non-profit fan fiction under the fair use doctrine, as it is a creative, transformative process.[22]

In 1981, Lucasfilm Ltd. sent out a letter to several fanzine publishers, asserting Lucasfilm's copyright to all Star Wars characters and insisting that no fanzine publish pornography. The letter also alluded to possible legal action that could be taken against fanzines that did not comply.[23]

The Harry Potter Lexicon is one case where the encyclopaedia-like website about everything in the Harry Potter series, moved towards publishing and commercializing the Lexicon as a supplementary and complementary source of information to the series. Rowling and her publishers levied a lawsuit against the website creator, Steven Vander Ark, and the publishing company, RDR Books, for a breach of copyright. While the lawsuit did conclude in Vander Ark's favor, the main issue in contention was the majority of the Lexicon copied a majority of the Series' material and does not transform enough of the material to be held separately from the series itself.[24]

While the HP Lexicon case is an example of Western culture treatment of fan fiction and copyright law, in China, Harry Potter fan fiction is less addressed in legal conflicts but is used as a cultural and educational tool between Western and Chinese cultures. More specifically, while there are a number of "fake" Harry Potter books in China, most of these books are treated as addressing concepts and issues found in Chinese culture. This transformative usage of Harry Potter in fan fiction is mainly from the desire to enhance and express value to Chinese tradition and culture.[25]

In recent years, several prominent authors have given their blessings to fan fiction, notably J.K. Rowling. Rowling said she was "flattered" that people wanted to write their own stories based on her fictional characters.[26] Similarly, Stephenie Meyer has put links on her website to fan fiction sites about her characters from the Twilight series.[27] The Fifty Shades trilogy was developed from a Twilight fan fiction originally titled Master of the Universe and published episodically on fan-fiction websites under the pen name "Snowqueen's Icedragon". The piece featured characters named after Stephenie Meyer's characters in Twilight, Edward Cullen and Bella Swan.[28][29]

As an example of changing views on the subject, author Orson Scott Card (best known for the Enders Game series) once stated on his website, "to write fiction using my characters is morally identical to moving into my house without invitation and throwing out my family." He changed his mind completely and since has assisted fan fiction contests, arguing to the Wall Street Journal that "Every piece of fan fiction is an ad for my book. What kind of idiot would I be to want that to disappear?"[30]

However, Anne Rice has consistently and aggressively prevented fan fiction based on any of her "fictional" characters (mostly those from her famous Interview with the Vampire and its sequels in The Vampire Chronicles). She, along with Anne McCaffrey (whose stance has been changed by her son, Todd McCaffrey, since her death) and Raymond Feist, have asked to have any fiction related to their series removed from FanFiction.Net.[26] George R.R. Martin, who was selected by Time magazine as one of the "2011 Time 100" and is most famous for his epic fantasy series, A Song of Ice and Fire, is also strongly opposed to fan fiction, believing it to be copyright infringement and a bad exercise for aspiring writers.[31][32] Sharon Lee and Steve Miller, creators of the Liaden universe, strongly oppose fan fiction written in their universe. "I don’t want “other people interpreting” our characters. Interpreting our characters is what Steve and I do; it’s our job. Nobody else is going to get it right. This may sound rude and elitist, but honestly, it’s not easy for us to get it right sometimes, and we’ve been living with these characters... for a very long time... We built our universes, and our characters; they are our intellectual property; and they are not toys lying about some virtual sandbox for other kids to pick up and modify at their whim. Steve and I do not sanction fanfic written in our universes; any such work that exists, exists without our permission, and certainly without our support."[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schulz, Nancy. "Fan Fiction - Literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 24, 2008. 
  2. ^ In December 1741 a two-volume sequel was published, written in response to numerous criticisms, parodies and spurious continuations of the original work that interfered with Richardson's literary and ethical mission. http://www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/pamela_illustrated/pamela.htm
  3. ^ "Just like today’s writers of ‘fan-fiction’ who use characters and settings from their favourite television shows and books (from Star Trek to Harry Potter), the Brontës used both fictional and real-life characters, such as the Duke of Wellington." The Brontes' secret science fiction stories, part of the British Library's exhibition Out of this World: Science Fiction but not as you know it.
  4. ^ a b Jeff Prucher, ed. (2007). Brave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-19-530567-8. 
  5. ^ "John Bristol" (1944). Fancyclopedia. The Fantasy Foundation. 
  6. ^ Verba, Joan Marie (2003). Boldly Writing: A Trekker Fan & Zine History, 1967-1987 (PDF). Minnetonka MN: FTL Publications. ISBN 0-9653575-4-6. 
  7. ^ Coppa, Francesca (2006). "A Brief History of Media Fandom". In Hellekson, Karen; Busse, Kristina. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 41–59. ISBN 978-0-7864-2640-9. 
  8. ^ Bacon-Smith, Camille (2000). Science Fiction Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0-8122-1530-4. 
  9. ^ Boog, Jason (September 18, 2008). "Brokeback 33 Percent". Mediabistro. Retrieved January 22, 2012. 
  10. ^ Buechner, Maryanne Murray (March 4, 2002). "Pop Fiction". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 29, 2010 
  11. ^ Bradley, Karen (Winter 2005), "Internet lives: Social context and moral domain in adolescent development". New Directions for Youth Development. 2005 (108):57-76
  12. ^ http://www.avclub.com/article/holy-crow-fifty-shades-grey-crazy-similar-its-twil-215185
  13. ^ Pepitone, Julianne (3 May 2013). "Amazon's "Kindle Worlds" lets fan fiction writers sell their stories". CNN Money. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Nerd Nexus (February 25, 2013). "What is fan fiction?". nerdnexus.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  15. ^ Segall (2008). Fan Fiction Writing: New Work Based on Favorite Fiction. Rosen Pub. p. 26. ISBN 1404213562. 
  16. ^ "Fanfiction.Net Review Form". Fanfiction.net. Retrieved April 24, 2008. 
  17. ^ Merlin, Missy (September 13, 2007). "Dr. Merlin's Guide to Fanfiction". Firefox. Retrieved May 7, 2008. 
  18. ^ Tosenberger, Catherine (2008) "Homosexuality at the Online Hogwarts: Harry Potter Slash Fanfiction" Children's Literature 36 pp. 185-207 doi:10.1353/chl.0.0017
  19. ^ Burns, Elizabeth and Webbr, Carlie. "When Harry Met Bella: Fan fiction is all the rage. But is it plagiarism? Or the perfect thing to encourage young writers?" School Library Journal, 8/1/2009.
  20. ^ Chan, Sewell (July 1, 2009). "Chan, Sewell. "Ruling for Salinger, Judge Bans 'Rye' Sequel" ''New York Times'', July 1, 2009". Cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011. 
  21. ^ Jenkins, Henry (2003). "Quentin Tarantino's Star Wars?: Digital Cinema, Media Convergence, and Participatory Culture". [dead link]
  22. ^ Schwabach, Aaron (2009). "The Harry Potter Lexicon and the World of Fandom: Fan Fiction, Outsider Works and, Copyright". University of Pittsburgh Law Review 70 (3): 387–434. 
  23. ^ Gupta, Suman (2009). Re-Reading Harry Potter 2nd Ed. Basingstoke (UK); New York (US): Palgrave Macmillan. 
  24. ^ a b Waters, Darren (May 27, 2004). "Rowling backs Potter fan fiction". BBC. Retrieved April 24, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Twilight Series Fansites". StephenieMeyer.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011. 
  26. ^ GalleyCat. "The Lost History of Fifty Shades of Grey". mediabistro.com. 
  27. ^ "Fifty Shades of Grey: Stephenie Meyer Speaks Out". mtv.com. MTV. 
  28. ^ Romano, Aja (2013-05-07). "Orson Scott Card’s long history of homophobia". Salon.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  29. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - George R. R. Martin's Official Website". Georgerrmartin.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011. 
  30. ^ Martin, George R.R. (May 7, 2010). "Someone Is Angry On the Internet". Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  31. ^ Sharon Lee, Writer (2013-10-26). "Lee, Sharon. "The second answer" ''Sharon Lee, Writer'' October 26, 2013". Sharonleewriter.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]