Calliostoma

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Calliostoma
Calliostoma ligatum 2.jpg
A live individual of Calliostoma ligatum with the operculum showing at the back (on the left)
C. trotini.jpg
Apertural view of a shell of Calliostoma trotini
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Vetigastropoda
Superfamily: Trochoidea
Family: Calliostomatidae
Subfamily: Calliostomatinae
Tribe: Calliostomatini
Genus: Calliostoma
Swainson, 1840[1]
Type species
Trochus conulus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text

Calliostoma is a genus of small to medium-sized sea snails with gills and an operculum, marine gastropod molluscs within the family Calliostomatidae, the calliostoma top snails (according to the taxonomy of taxonomy of Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)). Previously this genus was placed within the family Trochidae. Calliostoma is the type genus of the family Calliostomatidae.

The name of this genus is derived from the Greek words kallos (beautiful) and stoma (mouth), referring to the pearly aperture of the shell. The genus Calliostoma is known in fossil records from the Upper Cretaceous onwards.[2]

The distribution of this genus is worldwide, found mainly on hard substrata, although Japanese species have been found on sandy bottoms. These snails occur from shallow waters to bathyal depths.

The species in this genus are mainly herbivorous or feed on detritus,[3] although a few have been observed to be omnivorous (Keen, 1975) or even carnivorous, feeding on a wide range of algae and on animals belonging to various other invertebrate phyla.[4] The North Atlantic topshell Calliostoma occidentale has been reported to feed on coelenterates.[5]

Contrary to what is the case in most other top shells, Calliostoma deposits its eggs in gelatinous ribbons that are only fertilized after being deposited. The young emerge as small snails (Lebour, 1936) without passing through a free-living planktonic stage as a veliger larva.

Drawing of a dorsal view of a living animal of Calliostoma bairdii dredged in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of from 100 m to 1170 m.
Rare purple beaded specimen of Calliostoma supragranosum found subtidally in Southern California.

Description[edit]

The rather thin, acute, coeloconoid (= approaching conical shape but with concave sides) shell is imperforate or rarely umbilicate. The whorls are smooth, often polished and spirally ridged or granular. The body whorl is angulated at the periphery. The aperture is quadrangular, sinuated at the base and slightly oblique. The columella is simple, usually ending anteriorly in a slight tooth.[6] The nucleus appears to be either dextral or sinistral indifferently.[7][8]

Species[edit]

Currently, Calliostoma is being treated in WoRMS as a broad genus. It is expected to be broken up and (some) subgenera will be elevated to the status of genus. At this moment (2013), information is too fragmentary to assign all species in a revised genus.

Species within the genus Calliostoma include:[9]

Species brought into synonymy
[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Swainson W. J. (1840). Treat. Malacol. 218: 351.
  2. ^ Shimer & Shrock (1944). Index fossils of North America.
  3. ^ Clench W. & Turner R. (1960). "The genus Calliostoma in the western Atlantic". Johnsonia 4(40) :1-80.
  4. ^ Perron, F. E. (1975). "Carnivorous Calliostoma (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) from the northeastern Pacific". Veliger 18: 52–54. 
  5. ^ Perron, Frank E.; Turner R. D. (1978). "The feeding behaviour and diet of Calliostoma occidentale, a coelenterate-associated prosobranch gastropod". J. Moll. Stud. 44 (1): 100–103. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  6. ^ Tryon (1889), Manual of Conchology XI, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
  7. ^ Dall W. H. 1889. Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz, in the Gulf of Mexico (1877-78) and in the Caribbean Sea (1879-80), by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer "Blake", Lieut.-Commander C.D. Sigsbee, U.S.N., and Commander J.R. Bartlett, U.S.N., commanding. XXIX. Report on the Mollusca. Part 2, Gastropoda and Scaphopoda. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 18: 1-492, pls. 10-40
  8. ^ Swainson, W. 1840. A treatise on malacology, or shells and shell-fish; London
  9. ^ a b Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2011). Calliostoma. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138584 on 6 February 2011
  10. ^ Europeana: Calliostoma nodulosum
  • Vilvens C. (2012) New species and new records of Seguenzioidea and Trochoidea (Gastropoda) from French Polynesia. Novapex 13(1): 1-23. [10 March 2012] page(s): 18

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]