Fiestas Patrias (Mexico)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009)|
Aniversario de la Constitución
This day (English: Anniversary of the Constitution) commemorates the Constitution of 1917, promulgated after the Mexican Revolution on February 5. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the first Monday of February (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before it was celebrated on February 5th regardless of the day of the week in which the date occurred.
Natalicio de Benito Juárez
This day (English: Birth of Benito Juárez) commemorates President Benito Juárez's birthday on March 21, 1806. Juárez is popularly regarded as an exemplary politician because of his liberal policies that, among other things, defined the traditionally strict separation of the church and the Mexican state. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of March (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. As with Constitution Day, the holiday was originally celebrated every year on the same date (March 21), but the federal labor law was modified in 2005 so the holiday is always celebrated on a Monday.
Día del Trabajo
Día del Trabajo (English: Labor Day) commemorates the Mexican workers' union movements on May 1 — specifically, the 1906 Cananea, Sonora, and the 1907 Río Blanco, Veracruz, labor unrest and repression.
Grito de Dolores and Aniversario de la Independencia
Grito de Dolores (on the evening of September 15) and Aniversario de la Independencia (September 16) commemorate Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's Grito de Dolores — on September 16, 1810, in the village of Dolores, near Guanajuato. Hidalgo called for the end of Spanish rule in Mexico. On October 18, 1825, the Republic of Mexico officially declared September 16 its national Independence Day (Dia de la Independencia).
Mexican Independence day, also referred to as Dieciséis de septiembre, is celebrated from the evening of September 15 with a re-creation of the Grito de Dolores by all executive office-holders (from the President of the Republic down to municipal presidents) and lasts through the night.
Aniversario de la Revolución
This day commemorates the Mexican Revolution which started on November 20, 1910 when Francisco I. Madero planned an uprising against dictator Porfirio Díaz's 31-year-long iron rule. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of November (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before then, it was November 20 regardless of the day, and all schools gave extended holidays if the day was a Tuesday or Thursday. Although November 20 is the official day, the uprising started on different days in different parts of the country.
Confusion regarding Cinco de mayo
Contrary to common misconception in the U.S., Cinco de mayo is not Mexico's "Independence Day", but rather commemorates an initial victory of Mexican forces over French forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.
In contrast to Independence Day, described above, Cinco de mayo is observed mostly at a local level (Puebla State) and is a minor Bank Holiday in the rest of Mexico. Many labor unions have negotiated to have the day off, however, since its proximity to Labor Day (May 1) often allows an extended five day weekend or two consecutive three day weekends.
- Lauren Effron (2010-05-10). "Cinco de Mayo:NOT Mexico's Independence Day". Discovery News. Retrieved 2010-09-16. "Contrary to popular belief, Cinco de Mayo is not the celebration of Mexico's independence day."
- Julia Leyton (2003-04-26). "How Cinco de Mayo Works". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 2010-09-16. "Lots of us have heard of the Mexican holiday Cinco de Mayo, but not everyone knows what it celebrates. It is not, as some believe, Mexico's Independence Day."
- "Cinco de Mayo, Mexican Independence Day, Sombrero, Fiesta coloring page". Retrieved 2010-09-16. "Get ready for the Fiesta! Print out our original coloring page for your Cinco de Mayo (also known as Mexican Independence Day) celebration and color the Mexican flag, a sombrero, maracas, a pinata and more!"