Exclusive economic zone

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Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 n.m. limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

Definition[edit]

The World's EEZs, shown in dark blue.

Generally, a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the landward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 NM (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the EEZ, but such areas are not part of their EEZ. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the EEZ.

Origin[edit]

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States of America in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted as:

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Disputes[edit]

Baselines and EEZ claims in East and Southeast Asia showing the amount of overlap in the disputed South China Sea (the Spratly Islands in particular)

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[11]

Transboundary stocks[edit]

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[12] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[13]

Exclusive economic zone by country[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims.

Australia[edit]

Australia's exclusive economic zones.
  • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973[14]

Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. Per the UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[15]

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[16][17] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[18] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[17]

EEZ Area (km2)[17]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250

Brazil[edit]

Brazil's exclusive economic zones.

Brazil's exclusive economic zone covers 3,660,995 km2.

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[19]

Canada[edit]

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters.

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[20] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile[edit]

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim.

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[21] Land area Total
Mainland 2 009 299 755 757 2 765 056
Desventuradas 449 805
Easter 720 395 164 720 559
Juan Fernandez 502 490
Total 3 681 989 756 102 4 438 091

There is a dispute with Peru over the extension of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute

People's Republic of China[edit]

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by the Republic of China (Taiwan)
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus[edit]

Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[22] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[23][24]

Denmark[edit]

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark.

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the autonomous province (selvstyre) of Greenland and the self-governing (hjemmestyre) province of the Faroe Islands. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[17] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

France[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim.

Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[17] Land area Total
 Metropolitan France 334 604 551 695 886 299
 French Guiana 133 949 83 846 217 795
 Guadeloupe 95 978 1 628 97 606
 Martinique 47 640 1 128 48 768
 Réunion 315 058 2 512 317 570
 French Polynesia 4 767 242 4 167 4 771 409
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12 334 242 12 576
 Mayotte 63 078 376 63 454
 Wallis and Futuna 258 269 264 258 533
 Saint-Martin 1 000 53 1 053
 Saint-Barthélemy 4 000 21 4 021
 New Caledonia 1 422 543 18 575 1 441 118
 Clipperton Island 431 263 6 431 269
Crozet Islands 574 558 352 574 910
Kerguelen Islands 567 732 7 215 574 947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509 015 66 509 081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352 117 44 352 161
Tromelin Island 270 455 1 270 456
Total 11 035 000 675 417 11 710 417

Note, the EEZ (and territorial seas) column only adds up to 10,155,838 square km. All but the two smallest (Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy) components of France's EEZ/territorial seas match those at http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/, which would be a better reference than the reference given—which only provides EEZ sizes for Australia.

Greece[edit]

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[25]

According to published maps, the Israeli government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[26] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[27]

India[edit]

India's exclusive economic zones.

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 Miles.[citation needed]

Israel[edit]

In 2010, an EEZ was set within the territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime half way point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.[28]

Japan[edit]

Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, PRC and ROC). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[29][30] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Mexico[edit]

Exclusive economic zone of Mexico.

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[31]

New Zealand[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded).

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2,[32][33] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[34] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Northern Cyprus[edit]

The EEZ border between Northern Cyprus and Turkey.

On 21 September 2011, Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) signed an EEZ border agreement in New York.[35][36] Turkey is the only country that recognizes the TRNC, see Cyprus dispute.

Norway[edit]

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island.

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen .[37] The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[38]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Pakistan[edit]

Philippines[edit]

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue.

Philippines' EEZ covers 2,265,684 (135,783) km2[40]

Poland[edit]

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.[41]

Portugal[edit]

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN.[42]

Portugal has the 10th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[43] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[44] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[45]

Russia[edit]

Russia's exclusive economic zone.
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) - 11,634
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) - 12,759
  • Barents Sea - 1,308,140
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) - 66,854
  • Pacific - 3,419,202
  • Siberia - 3,277,292
  • Total - 8,095,881  km2[46]

South Africa[edit]

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone.

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1 535 538 km2.[47]

  • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2

Republic of Korea (South Korea)[edit]

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Others
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[48] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina.

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[49]
Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[50]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

United States[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas.

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[51]

Total: 12,234,403 km2 (4,723,729 sq mi)

Rankings by area[edit]

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA).

Country EEZ km2[50] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
 United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
 France 11,035,000 389,422 11,655,724
 Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
 Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
 United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486
 Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
 Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
 Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
 New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
 China 2,287,969 831,340 13,520,487
 Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
 Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
 Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
 Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
 Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
 Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
 Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
 Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
 India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
 Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
 Portugal 1,727,408 92,090 3,969,498
 Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
 Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
 South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
 Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
 Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
 Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
 Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
 Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
 Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
 Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
 Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
 Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
 Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
 Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
 Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
 Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
 Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
 Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
 Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
 Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
 Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
 Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
 Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
 Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
 Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
 Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
 Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
 Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
 Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
 Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
 Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
 Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
 South Korea 475,469 292,522 575,469
 Venezuela 471,507 98.500 1,387,950
 Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
 Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
 Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
 Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
 Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
 Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
 Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
 Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
 Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
 Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
 Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
 Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
 Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
 Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
 Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
 Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
 Pakistan 235,999 51,383 1,117,911
 Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
 Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
 Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
 Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
 Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
 Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
 Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
 Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
 Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
 Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
 Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
 Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
 Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
 Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
 Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
 Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
 North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364
 São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
 Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
 Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
 Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
 Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
 Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
 Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
 Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
 Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
 Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
 Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
 Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
 El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
 Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
 Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
 Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
 Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
 Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
 East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
 Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
 Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
 Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
 Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
 United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
 Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
 Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
 Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
 Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
 Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
 Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
 Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
 Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
 Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
 Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
 Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
 Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
 Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
 Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
 The Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
 Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
 Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
 Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
 Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
 Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
 Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
 Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
 Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
 Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
 Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
 Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
 Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
 Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
 Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
 Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
 Iraq 771 771 439,088
 Monaco 288 290
 Palestine 256 256 6,276
 Slovenia 220 220 20,493
 Jordan 166 59 89,508
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900
 Mongolia 1,564,100
 Chad 1,284,000
 Niger 1,267,000
 Mali 1,240,192
 Ethiopia 1,104,300
 Bolivia 1,098,581
 Zambia 752,612
 Afghanistan 652,090
 Central African Republic 622,984
 South Sudan 619,745
 Botswana 582,000
 Turkmenistan 488,100
 Uzbekistan 447,400
 Paraguay 406,752
 Zimbabwe 390,757
 Burkina Faso 274,222
 Uganda 241,038
 Laos 236,800
 Belarus 207,600
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951
   Nepal 147,181
 Tajikistan 143,100
 Malawi 118,484
 Hungary 93,028
 Azerbaijan 86,600
 Austria 83,871
 Czech Republic 78,867
 Serbia 77,474
 Slovakia 49,035
  Switzerland 41,284
 Bhutan 38,394
 Moldova 33,846
 Lesotho 30,355
 Armenia 29,743
 Burundi 27,834
 Rwanda 26,338
 Republic of Macedonia 25,713
 Swaziland 17,364
 Kosovo[a] 10,887
 Luxembourg 2,586
 Andorra 468
 Liechtenstein 160
 San Marino 61
  Vatican City 0.44

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes:

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.
  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

References:

  1. ^ "Part V - Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  2. ^ "Part V - Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. 
  3. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
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