Florence Goodenough

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Florence Goodenough
Florence Goodenough.jpg
Born August 6, 1886
Honesdale, Pennsylvania
Died April 4, 1959(1959-04-04) (aged 72)
Lakeland, Florida
Academic advisors Leta Stetter Hollingworth

Florence Laura Goodenough (August 6, 1886 – April 4, 1959) was an American psychologist and professor at the University of Minnesota who is noted for developing the Minnesota Preschool Scale and the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test (now the Draw-A-Person Test). She wrote the Handbook of Child Psychology in 1933, and she became president of the National Council of Women Psychologists in 1942. She is also noted for her instruction of Ruth Howard, the second African American woman to earn a Ph.D. in Psychology.

Biography[edit]

Florence Laura Goodenough was born on August 6, 1886 in Honesdale, Pennsylvania and was the youngest of nine children.[1][2][3][4] She was home-schooled and received the equivalent of a high school diploma. In 1908 she graduated with a Bachelor of Pedagogy from Normal School in Millersville, Pennsylvania.[3][4] She earned her B.S. in 1920 from Columbia University.[4][5] At Columbia she studied under Leta Stetter Hollingworth, and earned her M.A. in 1921 while working with Leta Hollingsworth.[4][5][6] She received her Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1924.[4][5]

Also at Stanford, Lewis Terman was beginning a study on gifted children and was selecting prospective researchers for his work.[7] Goodenough was noticed by Terman because of her IQ score.[3][7] She was chosen, and contributed substantially over the duration of the project, serving as chief field psychologist and chief research psychologist.[4][5][7] Goodenough was listed as a contributor to Terman's book Genetic Studies of Genius.[7][8][9] Soon after she joined the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota as an Assistant Professor. She became a professor in 1931.[3][4][5] At the University of Minnesota Goodenough created the Draw-a-Man test (Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test), which could measure intelligence in children.[3][4][5][8] She published the test in her 1926 book Measurement of Intelligence by Drawing, which included detailed accounts of procedures, scoring, and examples.[4][8]

Later she suffered from a degenerative disease and was forced into early retirement in 1947.[3][4][5] Despite the illness which induced a loss in sight and hearing, Goodenough published three more books after learning braille; Mental Testing: Its History, Principles, and Applications in 1949, Exceptional Children in 1954, and the third edition of Developmental Psychology in 1959.[3][5][8] Altogether, Goodenough published 10 texts and 26 research articles.[1] She died of a stroke in Florida on April 4, 1959.[4][5][8][10]

IQ testing[edit]

Goodenough revised and invented tests for children. Studying exceptional children, child psychology in general, and anger and fear specifically were all points of experimentation for Goodenough’s career.[11] She published her first book: The Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings in 1926 which introduced her thoughts and ideas of children’s I.Q. testing. In this book, Goodenough presented her I.Q. test for preschoolers called the Draw a Man Test. The test was known to be very reliable due to her extremely strict criteria for rating each drawing because it was well correlated with written I.Q. tests. This test was initially geared towards children ages two through 13. The Draw a man test eventually developed into a Draw-a-Woman Test due to critics believing many females would not necessarily be able to identify with a male.[12]

Timeline[edit]

1886: Born in Honesdale, Pennsylvania 1908: Bachelor of Pedogogy (B.Pd.) earned from Normal School in Millersville, Pennsylvania. 1920: B.S. from Columbia University under Leta Hollingsworth.


Director of Research in the Rutherford and Perth Amboy New Jersey public schools.


Began to document the effects of environment on intelligence test scores.

1921: M.A. earned from Columbia University under Leta Hollingsworth.


First began working with Lewis Terman at Stanford University.

1923: Published The Stanford Achievement Test. 1924: PhD Philosophy earned from Stanford University under Lewis Terman.


Worked at Minneapolis Child Guidance Clinic.

1925: Appointed assistant professor in the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota.


Published Genetic Studies of Genius.

1926: Published her first book: The Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings (Introduction to Draw-A-Man test). 1931: Published The Measurement of Mental Growth .


Published Anger in Young Children.


Promoted to full professor in the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota.

1933: Published Handbook of Child Psychology . 1938: Served as president of the National Council of Women Psychologists. 1940: Goodenough-Harris drawing test established, as revised by Florence Goodenough and Dale Harris. 1947: Retired early from the University of Minnesota due to physical illness.


Published Genetic Studies of Genius.

1947 Appointed Professor Emeritus until her death in 1959. 1949: Published Mental Testing: Its History, Principles, and Applications. 1956: Published Exceptional Children. 1959: Published Genetic Studies of Genius.


Died from a stroke at the age of 73.

[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/florencegoodenough.html
  2. ^ Florence L. Goodenough, 1886-1959. Child Development, 30, 305-306.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Jolly, J. L. (2010). Florence L. Goodenough: Portrait of a Psychologist. Roeper Review, 32:98-105. The Roeper Institute.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rodkey, E. (2010). Profile of Florence L. Goodenough. In A. Rutherford (Ed.), Psychology's Feminist Voices Multimedia Internet Archive. Retrieved from http://www.feministvoices.com/florence_goodenough/
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harris, D. (1959). Florence L. Goodenough, 1886-1959. Child Development, 30, 305-306.
  6. ^ http://www2.webster.edu/~woolflm/women.html
  7. ^ a b c d Rogers, K. B. (1999). The Lifelong Productivity of the Female Research hers in Terman's Genetic Studies of Genius Longitudinal Study. Gifted Child Quarterly, 43: 150. DOI: 10.1177/001698629904300303
  8. ^ a b c d e Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
  9. ^ Thompson 1990
  10. ^ Stevens, G. and Gardner, S. (1982). Florence Laura Goodenough. In G. Stevens and S. Gardner (Eds.), The women of psychology, Volume 1: Pioneers and innovators (pp. 193-197). Cambridge, MA.: Schenkman Publishing
  11. ^ http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/goodenough.htm
  12. ^ Goodenough, F. L. (1926). A new approach to the measurement of intelligence of young children. Ped. Sem, 33185-211.
  13. ^ http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/goodenough.htm#Time%20Line

References[edit]

  • Brice, N. (n.d.). Psychology: Florence l. goodenough. Retrieved from

http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/florencegoodenough.html

  • Bosler, A. (2000, May). Florence goodenough. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/goodenough.htm
  • Goodenough, F. L. (1926). A new approach to the measurement of intelligence of young children. Ped. Sem, 33185-211.
  • Harris, D. (1959). Florence L. Goodenough, 1886-1959. Child Development, 30, 305-306.
  • Jolly, J. L. (2010). Florence L. Goodenough: Portrait of a Psychologist. Roeper Review, 32:98-105.The Roeper Institute. DOI: 10.1080/02783191003587884
  • Rodkey, E. (2010). Profile of Florence Goodenough. In A. Rutherford (Ed.), Psychology's Feminist Voices Multimedia Internet Archive.
  • Hartup, W.W., Johnson, A., & Weinberg, R. A. (2001). The Institute of Child Development: Pioneering in Science and Application, 1925-2000. Minneapolis, MN: Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.
  • Thompson, D. N. (1990). Florence Laura Goodenough. In A.N. O'Connell & N. F. Russo (Eds.). Women of Psychology: A bio-bibliographic sourcebook (124-133). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Goodenough, F. (1926). "A new approach to the measurement of intelligence of young children." Journal of Genetic Psychology, 33, 185-211.
  • Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
  • Stevens, G. and Gardner, S. 1982. Florence Laura Goodenough. In G. Stevens and S. Gardner (Eds.), The Women of Psychology, Volume 1: Pioneers and innovators (pp. 193–197). Cambridge, MA.: Schenkman Publishing
  • Weiss, A. (n.d.). Florence goodenough: 1886-1959. Retrieved from http://www2.webster.edu/~woolflm/women.html