Fourragère

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Blue and red fourragère of the Croix de Guerre TOE worn by a soldier of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment (2e REI). The fourragère is the braided cord passing under the medals and around the soldier's side.

The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, that is shaped as a braided cord. The award has been firstly adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, and Luxembourg. The latter has not been awarded to foreign units.

France[edit]

History[edit]

As a regimental distinction the fourragère should not be confused with the aiguillette (distinctive insignia of the aide de camp) which was introduced by Napoleon I and which it closely resembles (the aiguillette is merely a golden fourragère).

The modern fourragère of the French Army is awarded to all members of military units which have been awarded a mention in despatches. It should not be confused with unit awards of particular decorations, where the medal itself is hung on the flag of the unit. For example, there are many units wearing the fourragère of the médaille militaire, whereas only six units wore the medal on their flags. See also the article dealing with the Croix de guerre.

It was introduced during the First World War, when the French Ministry of War first awarded the fourragère to units which had been recorded as distinguishing themselves more than once in the Orders of the Army. There were then six fourragères, depending on the numbers of Mentions in Dispatches awarded to the unit:

Numbers of mentions First and Second World Wars Overseas Wars Operations since 1952
9,10 or 11 Double, red (color of the légion d'honneur) and green with red stripes (colors of the croix de guerre 14-18) not awarded not awarded
6, 7 or 8 Simple, red (color of the légion d'honneur) Simple, red, with an olive red and blue (colors of the croix de guerre Overseas) not awarded
4 or 5 Simple, yellow with green stripes (colors of the médaille militaire) Simple, yellow with green stripes, with an olive red and blue not awarded
2 or 3 Simple, green with red stripes (colors of the croix de guerre 14-18) Simple, red and blue Simple, red and white (colors of the croix de la Valeur Militaire)

If a unit received this distinction in both the First and Second World Wars, its fourragère bears two olives, one for each conflict it earned mentions. These olives are different:

numbers of mentions First World War Second World War
9, 10 or 11 half-red and half-green with red stripes, the two halves separated by a white ring not awarded
6, 7 or 8 half-red and half-green with red stripes not awarded
4 or 5 half-yellow with green stripes and half-green with red stripes half-yellow with green stripes and half-red with green stripes
2 or 3 green with red stripes red with green stripes

During the Second World War, the medal of the Ordre de la Libération was awarded to the flags of 17 military units, whose members now wear a fourragère since June 18, 1996. This fourragère is considered the top unit award in the French military, as the ordre de la Libération award is seen to be more important than any mention in Dispatches.

Certain French military units wear combinations of fourragères, if they were mentioned in Orders in both one of the World War and an overseas (colonial) war. For example, the famous Foreign Legion regiment the 3rd Foreign Infantry wears a double fourragère red and green with red stripes (9 mentions during World War I), with an olive red with green stripes (3 mentions during World War II) and a fourragère yellow with green stripes, with an olive red and blue (5 mentions during Overseas Wars).

Fourragères used by the French Foreign Legion are:

  • 2e REI (2nd Foreign Legion Infantry) - Croix de Guerre des TOE
  • 2e REP (2nd Foreign Legion Paratroops) - Légion d'Honneur
  • 1er REC (1st Foreign Legion Cavalry) - Croix de Guerre (World War II); Croix de guerre des TOE
  • 3e REI (3rd Foreign Legion Infantry) - Légion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
  • 13e DBLE (13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade) - Ordre de la Libération

Personal wear of the fourragère[edit]

The fourragère is normally worn by members of a unit awarded the decoration. When they leave the unit, they have to relinquish the fourragère. However members who took part personally in the actions leading to the award of the fourragère can continue to wear the fourragère, even after leaving the unit. They can only wear a fourragère corresponding to the number of actions they actually took part in. Thus, if a member of a 5-mentions regiment leaves but took part in only two mentioned actions, he can only wear the croix de guerre fourragère and not the médaille militaire fourragère.

Pictures[edit]

American Units awarded the fourragère[edit]

General Graves B. Erskine wears the fourragère with the cords hanging over the sleeve, a mark of being in the military unit when the award was made. Soldiers and Marines who are later assigned to the unit do not wear the outside cords. Graves B. Erskine, then platoon leader in the 6th Marine Regiment, was authorized to wear the fourragère as an individual decoration.
  • The 5th Marine Regiment and the 6th Marine Regiment of the United States Marine Corps were awarded the fourragère for having earned the Croix de Guerre with palm leaf three times during World War I.
  • The 23rd Infantry Regiment, Second Division, U.S. A.E.F., was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with Palm three times, and awarded the French fourragère for service during World War I campaigns at Chateau Thierry, Aisne-Marne, and Meuse-Argonne. In addition, because several U.S. soldiers were present in front-line action during each battle for which the 23rd Infantry was awarded the Croix de Guerre, the French Government and U.S. Army Adjutant General allowed these soldiers to wear the fourragère as an individual decoration regardless of future unit assignment—a very rare honor. In total, 434 A.E.F. officers and men were certified to wear the French fourragère as an individual decoration, per the Final Report of the Secretary of War, 1922.
  • During World War I, the 5th S.S.U. was awarded the fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire.
  • During World War II, the Second Armored Division as well as the 16th, 18th and 26th Infantry Regiments U.S., the 5th and 7th Field Artillery Battalions U.S., the 1st Engineer Battalion U.S. and the 1st Signal Company U.S. were awarded the fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire.
  • 17 French military units wear the fourragère of the Ordre de la Libération (see article for the list).
  • U.S. 370th Infantry Regiment (World War I) [2]
  • BEF Units of World War I[1]
  • U.S. 82nd Airborne Division during the battle of Normandy in June 1944.
  • The U.S. Third Infantry Division (Marne Division) was awarded the Fourragere aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre for service to France in WW I.
  • The U.S. 79th Infantry Division was awarded the Fourragere aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre for its actions in helping liberate Paris from June 1944 through 27 August 1944 and helping liberate Baccaret, Phalsbourg and Saverne from 21–24 November 1944.[2]
  • The 12th Field Artillery Regiment was awarded the French Croix de Guerre in World War I and the Belgian Fourragere in World War II.
  • The 104th Infantry Regiment was awarded the French Croix de Guerre in World War I and World War II.
  • The U.S. 121st Cavalry Squadron, XV Corps, was awarded the French Croix de Guerre and French Fourragere in World War II.

World War I[edit]

Unit Service Year awarded Campaign or battle Other notes
5th Marines
6th Marines
US Marines 1918 Battle of Belleau Wood, Western Front Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre with palm leaf three times
23rd Infantry Regiment,
2nd Division
US Army 1918 Chateau Thierry, Aisne-Marne, and Meuse-Argonne 434 officers and men were certified to wear the French fourragère as an individual decoration, per the Final Report of the Secretary of War, 1922
370th Infantry Regiment,
93rd Infantry Division
US Army 1918 Third Battle of the Aisne, Western Front [3]
3rd Division US Army 1918 Western Front Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre


World War II[edit]

Unit Service Year awarded Campaign or battle Other notes
2nd Infantry Division U.S. Army 1944 Normandy Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire
16th Infantry,
18th Infantry
26th Infantry,
5th Field Artillery,
7th Field Artillery Battalion,
1st Engineer Battalion,
1st Signal Company,
all of the 1st Infantry Division
U.S. Army 1944 Normandy Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire
Division and 1st Brigade,
82nd Airborne Division
U.S. Army 1944 Normandy Also awarded the Order of William by the Kingdom of the Netherlands for gallantry during Operation Market Garden in 1944
79th Infantry Division U.S. Army 1944 Operation Overlord Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre
12th Field Artillery Battalion,
2nd Armored Division,
99th Infantry Division
U.S. Army 1944 Battle of the Bulge Belgian Fourragère[4][5]
478th Amphibious Truck Company Non Divisional U.S. Army 1944 Operation Overlord Awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre
104th Infantry Regiment (United States) U.S. Army 1944 Hindenburg Line awarded the Fourragère aux couleurs de la Croix de guerre


Dutch Orange Lanyard[edit]

Main article: Order of William

The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William, is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Order's motto is Voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw (For Bravery, Leadership and Loyalty). The chivalric order was established on 30 April 1815 by King William I and was presented for feats of excellent bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration to senior military officers. Comparable with the French Légion d’Honneur but far less awarded, the Military William Order is a chivalry order of merit open to everyone regardless of rank and nobility, and not only to Dutch military but also foreigners. To date the Order is extremely rarely awarded and only for excellent bravery in battle.

The unit's Regimental Colour are decorated with the badge of the 4th Class itself, which hangs from the finial of the pike. The version of the Military William Order for unit members is known as the Orange Lanyard. Only those who served in a military unit at the particular time of action are entitled to wear the Orange Lanyard. The Orange Lanyard is worn as a cord around the right shoulder and can be worn simultaneously with the French or Belgian Fourragère of the Croix de guerre. The Orange Lanyard is considered a permanent decoration and is worn for the duration of a military member's career.

Belgian fourragère[edit]

US Army Blouse with Belgian Fourragère.

The Belgian fourragère of 1940 was created by Prince Charles of Belgium, Regent of the Kingdom to honour certain military formations that distinguished themselves during the Second World War. It consists of three cords terminated by a knot and a metal tag, and is braided in red and green; the colours of the Belgian Croix de Guerre of 1940. The fourragère is in cotton for non-commissioned officers and soldiers and in silk for officers.

Luxembourg fourragère[edit]

The Luxembourg Army currently awards an orange and blue fourragère.[6]

Portuguese fourragères[edit]

Portugal has three fourragères: the War Cross (red and blue), the Military Valor Medal (blue and white) and the Order of the Tower and Sword (solid blue).

South Vietnamese fourragère[edit]

The Vietnam Gallantry Cross is the equivalent of the French Croix de Guerre. It was created by Decree No 74-b/Qt dated 15 August 1950 and Decree No 96/DQT/HC dated 2 May 1952. Both individuals (denoted by a star) and formations (denoted by a palm) cited for gallantry were awarded the decoration. Formations that were awarded the Gallantry Cross for two or more occasions were initially authorized to wear a fourragère.[7]

The Vietnam Civil Action is another of the South Vietnamese fourrageres. In appearance it resembled the Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, but rather than yellow and red, it was green and red. Formations that were awarded the medal or emblem for two or more occasions are authorized to wear a fourragère. Many units and individuals were awarded one award, but few were presented with a second award.[8]

Decorative fourragères[edit]

Fourragères are often worn as decorative items to liven up ceremonial uniforms in military, police, and cadet organisations. Members of the United States and Canadian 1st Special Service Force wore a red, white, and blue fourragère made out of parachute shroud lines. [9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]