Global strategy

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Global strategy as defined in business terms is an organization's strategic guide to globalization. A sound global strategy should address these questions: what must be (versus what is) the extent of market presence in the world's major markets? How to build the necessary global presence? What must be AND (versus what is) the optimal locations around the world for the various value chain activities? How to run global presence into global competitive advantage? [1]

Academic research on global strategy came of age during the 1980s, including work by Michael Porter and Christopher Bartlett & Sumantra Ghoshal. Among the forces perceived to bring about the globalization of competition were convergences in economic systems and technological change, especially in information technology, that facilitated and required the coordination of a multinational firm's strategy on a worldwide scale. [2] [3]

A global strategy may be appropriate in industries where firms are faced with strong pressures for cost reduction but with weak pressures for local responsiveness. Therefore, it allows these firms to sell a standardized product worldwide. However, fixed costs (capital equipment) are substantial. Nevertheless, these firms are able to take advantage of scale economies and experience curve effects, because it is able to mass-produce a standard product which can be exported (providing that demand is greater than the costs involved).

Global strategies require firms to tightly coordinate their product and pricing strategies across international markets and locations, and therefore firms that pursue a global strategy are typically highly centralized.[3]


  1. ^ Vijay Govindarajan and Anil K. Gupta 'The Quest for Global Dominance: Transforming Global Presence into Global Competitive Advantage' Jossey Bass. (2008). p. 20-21
  2. ^ Michael Porter (ed.) 'Competition in Global Industries' Harvard Business School Press. (1986)
  3. ^ a b Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal 'Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution' Harvard Business School Press. (1989)

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