Gopala I

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For the mathematician, see Gopala (mathematician). For the child Krishna, see Gopal (Krishna).
Gopala
Reign c. 750s–770s CE
Predecessor Vacant
Successor Dharmapala
House Pala Dynasty
Father Vapyata

Gopala (ruled c. 750s–770s CE) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of medieval Bengal. The last morpheme of his name Pala means "protector" and was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs. Pala does not suggest or indicate any ethnic or caste considerations of the Pala dynasty. He came to power around 750 CE in Gaur after being elected by a group of regional chieftains.

Origins[edit]

There are no contemporary sources of information about Gopala's life: he is known only through the later literary references and genealogies in inscriptions.[1]:39

The name of his father was Vapyata, and his grandfather Dayitavishnu.[2] A eulogy on the Khalimpur copper plate of his son Dharmapala describes his father Vapyata as a Khanditarati or "killer of enemies", and his grandfather Dayitavishnu as Sarva-vidyavadata ("all-knowing" in the sense "highly educated").[3] The later texts of the Pala period, such as Ramacharita, mention the Pala rulers as the kings descended from the solar dynasty. However, these lack credibility, and seem to be attempts to cover up their relatively humble origins.[4]

Election[edit]

After the death of the Gauda king Shashanka, a century of anarchy and confusion ensued in Bengal. This situation is described by the Sanskrit phrase matsya nyaya ("fish justice" i.e. a situation in which the big fish prey on the smaller ones). It was during these times that Gopala came to power around 750 CE. He was already a leading military general by that time.

The Khalimpur copper plate of Dharmapala alludes to Gopal's election in the following stanza:

Matsyanyayam apakitum prakritibhir Lakshmiya karam grahitah Sri Gopala iti kshitisa-sirsam chudamani-tatsubha

To put an end to the state of affairs similar to what happens among fishes, the prakriti made the glorious Gopala, the crest jewel of the heads of kings, take the hand of Lakshmi, the goddess of fortune.

The Sanskrit word prakriti is suggestive of "people" in general.[4] The Tibetan Buddhist lama Taranatha (1575–1634), writing nearly 800 years later, also writes that he was democratically elected by the people of Bengal. However, his account is in form of a legend, and is considered historically unreliable. The legend mentions that after a period of anarchy, the people elected several kings in succession, all of whom were consumed by the Naga queen of an earlier king on the night following their election. Gopal, however managed to kill the queen and remained on the throne.[5]

The historical evidence indicates that Gopala was not elected directly by his subjects, but by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary tribal societies of the region.[5][4] The stanza in the Khalimpur copper plate is an eulogy, and uses the word prakriti figuratively.[6]

Based on the different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, the different historians estimate Gopala's reign as follows:[1]:32-37

Historian Estimate of Gopala's reign
RC Majumdar (1971) 750–770
AM Chowdhury (1967) 756-781
BP Sinha (1977) 755-783
DC Sircar (1975-76) 750-775

Reign and legacy[edit]

According to Manjusrimulakalpa, Gopala died at the age of 80, after a reign of 27 years.[7] Not much is known about his life or military career, but at the time of his death, Gopala had bequeathed a large kingdom to his son Dharmapala (770-810 CE). No records are available about the exact boundaries of Gopala's kingdom, but it might have included almost all of the Bengal region.[8] His son and successor Dharmapala greatly expanded the kingdom, making it one of the most powerful empires in contemporary India.

Religion[edit]

A few sources written much after Gopala's death mention him as a Buddhist, but it is not known if this is true.[1]:39 Taranatha attests that Gopala was a staunch Buddhist and a major patron of Buddhism. He also states that Gopala had built the famous Buddhist monastery at Odantapuri.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Susan L. Huntington (1 January 1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-06856-2. 
  2. ^ AM Chowdhury, Dynastic History of Bengal, Dhaka, 1967
  3. ^ Jhunu Bagchi (1 January 1993). The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D.. Abhinav Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-81-7017-301-4. 
  4. ^ a b c Nitish K. Sengupta (1 January 2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. Penguin Books India. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4. 
  5. ^ a b Biplab Dasgupta (1 January 2005). European Trade and Colonial Conquest. Anthem Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-1-84331-029-7. 
  6. ^ P.B. Udgaonkar (1 January 1986). Political Institutions & Administration. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-81-208-2087-6. 
  7. ^ Pramode Lal Paul (1939). The Early History of Bengal. Indian History. Indian Research Institute. p. 36. Retrieved 2014-03-28. 
  8. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 277–287. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. 
  9. ^ History of Buddhism in India, Translation by A Shiefner
Preceded by
Gupta Empire
Pala Emperor
c. 750s–770s CE
Succeeded by
Dharmapala