Mr Thomas Gradgrind is the notorious headmaster in Dickens's novel Hard Times who is dedicated to the pursuit of profitable enterprise. His name is now used generically to refer to someone who is hard and only concerned with cold facts and numbers.
In the story 
In the story, he was the father of five children, naming them after prominent utilitarians such as Robert Malthus. He also ran a model school where young pupils were treated as pitchers which were to be filled to the brim with facts. This satirised Scottish philosopher James Mill who attempted to develop his sons into perfect utilitarians.
"The speaker's obstinate carriage, square coat, square legs, square shoulders - nay his very neckcloth, trained to take him by the throat..."—Charles Dickens, Hard Times
In a famous passage, a visiting official asks Gradgrind's students "Suppose you were going to carpet a room. Would you use a carpet having a representation of flowers upon it?" The character Sissy Jupe replies, ingenuously, that she would because, "If you please, sir, I am very fond of flowers."
|“||"And is that why you would put tables and chairs upon them, and have people walking over them with heavy boots?"
"It wouldn't hurt them, sir. They wouldn't crush and wither, if you please, sir. They would be the pictures of what was very pretty and pleasant, and I would fancy -"
Gradgrind is the most dynamic character in Hard Times since he comes to recognize that emotions are important when his daughter Louisa has an emotional breakdown.
- Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)
- Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. "Name of the mill-owner in Dickens's Hard Times (1854), 'a man of facts and calculations', used allusively for: one who is hard and cold, and solely interested in facts."
- Charles Dickens (1854). Hard Times. ISBN 0-333-58073-7. "Thomas Gradgrind to the little pitchers before him, who were to be filled so full of facts.". "What I want is, Facts:" chapter 1. "Fact, fact, fact!:" chapter II
- KS Keefover (September 1983). "Accountability—A Historical Perspective". The Educational Forum 47 (3): 365–372. doi:10.1080/00131728309335979
- Garrett Stewart (2001). "10 Dickens and Language". The Cambridge Companion to Charles Dickens. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-521-66964-1