Gustave Bloch (July 21, 1848, Fegersheim, Bas-Rhin – December 3, 1923) was a French Jewish historian of ancient history born in Fegersheim, a commune located in the department of Bas-Rhin. He was the father of historian Marc Bloch (1886–1944), who along with Lucien Febvre (1878–1956), was co-founder of the École des Annales.
He received his agrégation in 1872, and during the following year began teaching classes in rhetoric at Lycée de Besançon. In 1876 he became a lecturer, and several years later started work as a professor of Greek and Roman antiquities at the University of Lyon. Beginning in 1888 he taught history at the École Normale Supérieure, where he succeeded historian Paul Guiraud [1850-1907). From 1904 to 1919 he was a professor of Roman history at the Faculté des lettres in Paris.
- La République romaine. Les conflits politiques et sociaux, (The Roman Republic. Political and social sonflicts), 1913.
- L'Empire romain. Evolution et décadence, (The Roman Empire. Evolution and decadence), 1922.