Halbert Powers Gillette
Born on August 5, 1869, in Waverly, Iowa to Theodore Weld and Laetitia S. (Powers), Gillette attended the Hammond Hall Academy in Salt Lake City, where he graduated in 1886. Six years later, he received his engineering degree at the School of Mines at Columbia University.
After some years working in the industry, Gillette served as assistant New York State Engineer, from 1896 to 1898. The next three years he worked as a contractor, and from 1903 to 1905 he was Associate editor of the Engineering News. In 1905, he founded Scranton Gillette Communications, Inc., where he became president. From 1906 to 1907, he served as chief engineer of the Washington Railroad Commission. Later, Gillette became an instructor of science at Columbia University.
Gillette was a member of the Member American Society of Consulting Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Engineering Contractors, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.
Starting in the early 1900s, Gillette wrote and co-wrote more than a dozen books.
Rock excavation: methods and cost, 1900s-10s
His first book was Earthwork and Its Cost, which was prized for its verve and clarity as well as its technical comprehensiveness. In its preface Gillette (1903) explained:
- "There are few engineering works of magnitude that do not involve the excavation of earth. Indeed the cost of earthwork forms one of the greatest of cost items in canal, in reservoir and in railway construction, nor is it an inconsiderable item in the construction of roads, sewers or water works. What will this excavation cost? This is a question that the engineer first asks himself in making his preliminary estimates. Later the same question confronts the contractor. To the engineer an erroneous answer may mean loss of reputation, to the contractor it assuredly means ruin where the work is extensive. A glance at the wide range in contract bids for most earthwork jobs will convince anyone that few contractors do more than guess at costs. While the numberless engineering structures that have cost more than the preliminary estimates prove quite as conclusively that engineers too often guess also."
Gillette claimed, that this was "the first published volume treating of earth economics in a comprehensive way." In line with this topic Gillette in 1904 published Rock excavation: methods and cost. In its preface Gillette (1904) gave an introduction of mineral production and rock excavation:
- "The value of the mineral products of America annually exceeds $1,000,000,000. For explosives alone the sum of $20,000,000 is expended each year, and it is well within limits to say that fully twice as great a sum is paid out to drillers and blasters. When we consider the labor, the power and the powder required to mine and to quarry products in the aggregate so enormously valuable, we can not fail to be impressed with the scantiness of literature on the economics of rock excavation. A dozen years ago, when called upon to estimate the cost of some open cut rock excavation, I was astonished to find no text book that in the least served to guide me. I subsequently learned also that most of the matter to be found in the few books on blasting was either theoretic or too meagre to be of material value. What was true then has unfortunately remained true."
In 1916, Gillette published the enlarged Handbook of Rock Excavation. Juniper Prize-winning author Steve Yates wrote, "Here was a book created when engineers could still write like Henry David Thoreau and think like James B. Eads. Gillette covered rock work and quarrying methods from ancient hand drills through steam's dominance in mining to just before the advent of gas-powered drills."
Construction cost keeping and management, 1900s
In the 1900s Gillette published as series of books on the more topic of construction cost keeping and management, which included:
- Economics of road construction, first published in 1906.
- Handbook of cost data for contractors and engineers, first published in 1907.
- Concrete Construction: Methods and Cost, first published in 1908, and
- Construction Cost Keeping and Management, written with Richard T. Dana and first published in 1909.
In Construction Cost Keeping and Management, Gillette gave an overview of the many appliances which were used in his days to compile records, and process information in business offices, including time clocks, the mimeograph, mechanical calculators (separate adding machines and multiplying machines), etc.
|Offices appliances and methods, 1909|
Gillette wrote, "Such an appliance which may not, in general, be used in the field, but which is of immense value in the office and particularly in a shop, is the time clock. Various forms of time clocks are in common use, two types of which are illustrated. [The first] is a time card recorder, which is a clock so no made that it will automatically stamp on a card inserted in a slot in the clock by the workman the time of his arrival and of his departure. The cards are made to hold a record covering the pay period and need no attention from a timekeeper or clerk until the termination of this period. The record of the men's time can then be compiled very readily by one who need not be a skilled mathematician or time clerk."
And furthermore, "the time clock system has been developed very highly in shops for keeping track of time used in completing any job by workmen, but as this in a way is not in the realm of field cost keeping, it will not be entered into here. Another form of time clock, shown in [the second image], has the numbers of the employees fixed on the outer edge of a disk or ring and a record is made by the employee who shifts a revolving arm and punches his number upon entering the office and leaving."
Forecasting Weather Conditions, 1920s-30s
In the last decennia of his working live Gillette had focussed his attention to the study of weather cycles, and in 1937 published his last book, entitled Climatic Cycles Reflected in Geological Data. A 1943 article in the Theosophy magazine summarized Gillette's efforts:
- "For many years Mr. Halbert P. Gillette... has made an intensive study of weather cycles. In the beginning his theories made such bizarre reading from the point of view of scientists, that little attention seems to have been paid to them. Essentially, they were based on theories of interflow of electrons between the earth, the sun, and the other planets. The real nature of electrons, and their ubiquity, now being better recognized, his ideas fall more into line with the thought of the day.
- Mr. Gillette has sought to tie up his theories to the clay varves, or seasonal layers, in lake deposits. Among the most important of the cycles discovered, is one of approximately 605 years, subdivided into three equal periods of less importance. This is equal to 51 orbital periods of Jupiter. He believes that it represents the orbital period of Pickering's undiscovered "Planet P." Pickering's estimate of this orbital period was 656 years.
- Gillette claims that whenever a planet is in solar longitude either of 108 or 288 degrees, it causes a peak of a rainfall cycle, whether evidenced by rainfall records, tree rings, or varves. Such peaks coincide with sunspot maxima. In addition to the major cycle produced by each planet, it causes harmonic sub-cycles of 1/3, 1/9, 1/27 of the length of the major one, etc. The great maxima and minima of rainfall, of course, come when peaks and depressions of cycles and subcycles coincide. According to Gillette we are progressing toward a period of great drought whose apex will be 1984. Volcanic upheavals and compass variations appear to have cycles closely coinciding with the major rain cycles, he says..."
The article confirms the "this coincidence of cycles is of vast importance in the occult side of nature; as is well known to Theosophists, the years 1897-98 signalized a coincidence of cycles, the longest of which was about 5,000 years, of such intensity that the entire world order was upset by it."
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Earthwork and Its Costs: A Handbook of Earth Excavation. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incorporated, 1903; 1907; 1912, 1920.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Rock excavation: methods and cost. New York : M.C Clark, 1904.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Economics of road construction. Engineering News Publishing Company, 1906.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Handbook of cost data for contractors and engineers, M.C. Clark, 1907.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers, and Charles S. Hill. Concrete Construction: Methods and Cost. Clark, 1908.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers, and Richard T. Dana. Construction Cost Keeping and Management. Gillette Publishing Company, 1909, 1922, 1927.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Handbook of Rock Excavation, Methods and Costs, New York, Clark book company, inc., 1916.
- Halbert Powers Gillette, Handbook of clearing and grubbing methods and cost. 1917.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers, and Richard T. Dana. Handbook of mechanical and electrical cost data, 1918
- Halbert P. Gillette, A. R. Losh, James J. Tobin. Highway Cost Keeping. United States. Department of Agriculture, 1919
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Handbook of construction cost. McGraw-Hill book company, inc., 1922.
- Halbert P. Gillette. Climatic Cycles Reflected in Geological Data. 1937.
- Gillette, Halbert Powers. Engineering & contracting. Engineering and Contracting Publishing Company, 1906-1932.
- "Online Books by Halbert Powers Gillette". The Online Books Page. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- Young, Lewis Emanuel, and Harry Harkness Stoek. Subsidence resulting from mining. (1916).
- Richardson, Charles Henry. The Road Materials of Kentucky: A Preliminary Report Covering Field and Laboratory Investigations of Rock, Gravel and Bituminous Sandstone Deposits Occurring Within the Commonwealth. Vol. 22. Kentucky Geological survey, 1924.
- Mills, Chris (February 22, 2012). "Halbert Powers Gillette". Find A Grave. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- "GILLETTE, Halbert Powers, Editor, engineer" in: WHO WAS WHO IN AMERICA, VOL III 1951-1960
- Gillette (1903, p. iii)
- Gillette (1904, p. iii)
- Yates. Steve (2014). Curiosity's Cats: Writers on Research "To Understand You Must Break In". Minnesota Historical Society Press.
- Gillette (1909, p. 110-111)
- "Science and the secret doctrine, Electronic Cycles" in: Theosophy, Vol. 32, No. 2, December, 1943. p. 77-80.
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