A product of Shandong Luneng's youth team, Han Peng would make his senior club debut on 10 March 2002 against Sichuan Guancheng. This was followed by his first league goal on 23 March 2002 in a game against Chongqing Lifan. Gradually establishing himself within the Shandong team for several seasons, it wasn't until Han was partnered with Li Jinyu during the 2005 season that he started to show his prolific nature as a striker when he scored seven league goals. This was followed by another ten league goals that help Shandong win the 2006 league title as well as the Chinese FA Cup. While the next season would see Han have his most productive season when he scored thirteen league goals, he was unable to help Shandong retain the league title. The 2008 season was to personally to be a disappointing campaign for Han when he found himself injured throughout most the season, however he was still able to help Shandong win the league title. Han had an extremely disappointing season for Shandong Luneng during the 2012 season, spending most of his time on the bench.
Han would make his international debut in a friendly against Switzerland on 3 June 2006 in a 4-1 defeat. Despite this result, he would quickly become an integral part Zhu Guanghu's squad that achieved qualification for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup and even scoring his first goal against Iraq in the process on 15 November 2006 in a 1-1 draw. During the tournament, Han found himself playing as a lone striker with fellow striking partner Li Jinyu completely dropped from the squad. While he was able to score two goals within the tournament, he could not help China having a disastrous campaign and getting kicked out of the group stages. A new manager in Vladimir Petrović was brought in for the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification and he still considered Han as China's best striker. While he played in several games throughout the campaign, he was unable to score in any games and saw China unable to qualify for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.