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This article is about studies of heresy. For the practice of recording heresy, see heresiography.

In theology or the history of religion (particularly of Christianity), heresiology is the study of heresy.

Heresiology, in the traditional sense, developed as a part of the development of orthodoxy in the Roman/Byzantine Church. Church scholars studied and documented the teachings of various Christian sects in order to clearly distinguish between those they accepted as orthodox and those they rejected as heretical.[1] Other Christian communions developed their own competing heresiological traditions as well.