Independent Administrative Institution
An Incorporated Administrative Agency or in lay terms an Independent Administrative Corporation or Independent Administrative Institution (独立行政法人, Dokuritsu gyōsei hōjin, IAI) is a newly designed type of legal body for Japanese governmental organizations regulated by the Basic Law on Reforming Government Ministries of 1998. The IAIs are not under the National Government Organization Act that provides for Japanese Ministries and administrative organizations.
Originally proposed by the Administrative Reform Council, the IAI is created based on the concept of separating governmental ministries and agencies into planning functions and operation functions. Planning functions remain within government-based ministries and agencies while operating functions are transferred to IAIs.
Independent Administrative Institutions utilize management methods of private-sector corporations and are given considerable autonomy in their operations and how to use their budgets. In April 2001, the Japanese government first designated 59 bodies as IAIs, among which were many research institutes and some museums.
Examples of IAIs
There are 102 IAIs as of April 2012.
- National Center for University Entrance Examinations, an IAI that administers the National Center Test for University Admissions
- Japan Mint, the mint
- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
- Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO)
- Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC)
- National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
- National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
- National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
- National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE)
- National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, Tokyo National Museum (TNM)
- National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, Kyoto National Museum, (KNM)
- National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, Nara National Museum (NNM)
- National Museum of Art, Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo (MOMAT)
- National Museum of Art, Tokyo National Museum of Western Art (NMWA)
- National Printing Bureau
- Nippon Export and Investment Insurance (NEXI)
Notes and references
- 独立行政法人一覧（平成24年4月１日現在） [The list of Independent Administrative Institution, as of Heisei 24 (2012), April 1] (pdf) (in Japanese). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- Independent Administrative Institution National Museum. (2005) Outline of the Independent Administrative Institution National Museum. Tokyo: Independent Administrative Institution National Museum Secretariat. OCLC: 71634675
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002). Benchmarking Industry-science Relationships. Paris: OECD Publishing. 10-ISBN 92-64-19741-9; 13-ISBN 978-92-64-19741-1 OCLC: 49642355
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