||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2014)|
In abstract algebra an inner automorphism is a function which, informally, involves a certain operation being applied, then another operation (shown as x below) being performed, and then the initial operation being reversed. Sometimes the initial action and its subsequent reversal change the overall result ("raise umbrella, walk through rain, lower umbrella" has a different result from just "walk through rain"), and sometimes they do not ("take off left glove, take off right glove, put on left glove" has the same effect as "take off right glove only").
More formally an inner automorphism of a group G is a function:
- ƒ: G → G
defined for all x in G by
- ƒ(x) = a−1xa,
where a is a given fixed element of G, and where we deem the action of group elements to occur on the right (so this would read "a times x times a−1").
The operation a−1xa is called conjugation (see also conjugacy class), and it is often of interest to distinguish the cases where conjugation by one element leaves another element unchanged (as in the "gloves" analogy above) from cases where conjugation generates a new element (as in the "umbrella" analogy).
In fact, saying
- a−1xa = x ("conjugation by a leaves x unchanged")
is equivalent to saying
- ax = xa. ("a and x commute")
The expression a−1xa is often denoted exponentially by xa. This notation is used because we have the rule (xa)b=xab (giving a right action of G on itself).
Inner and outer automorphism groups
The composition of two inner automorphisms is again an inner automorphism (as mentioned above: (xa)b=xab), and with this operation, the collection of all inner automorphisms of G is itself a group, the inner automorphism group of G denoted Inn(G).
is known as the outer automorphism group Out(G). The outer automorphism group measures, in a sense, how many automorphisms of G are not inner. Every non-inner automorphism yields a non-trivial element of Out(G), but different non-inner automorphisms may yield the same element of Out(G).
By associating the element a in G with the inner automorphism ƒ(x) = xa in Inn(G) as above, one obtains an isomorphism between the quotient group G/Z(G) (where Z(G) is the center of G) and the inner automorphism group:
- G/Z(G) = Inn(G).
This is a consequence of the first isomorphism theorem, because Z(G) is precisely the set of those elements of G that give the identity mapping as corresponding inner automorphism (conjugation changes nothing).
Non-inner automorphisms of finite p-groups
A result of Wolfgang Gaschütz says that if G is a finite non-abelian p-group, then G has an automorphism of p-power order which is not inner.
It is an open problem whether every non-abelian p-group G has an automorphism of order p. The latter question has positive answer whenever G has one of the following conditions:
- G is nilpotent of class 2
- G is a regular p-group
- The centralizer CG(Z((G))) in G of the center of the Frattini subgroup (G) of G is not equal to (G)
- G/Z(G) is a powerful p-group
Types of groups
Inn(G) can only be a cyclic group when it is trivial, by a basic result on the center of a group.
At the opposite end of the spectrum, it is possible that the inner automorphisms exhaust the entire automorphism group; a group whose automorphisms are all inner and whose centre is trivial is called complete. This is the case for all of the symmetric groups on n elements when n is not 2 or 6: when n=6 the symmetric group has a unique non-trivial class of outer automorphisms and when n=2 the symmetric group is abelian, therefore its centre is non-trivial so that even though it has no outer automorphisms it nevertheless is not complete.
Given a ring R and a unit u in R, the map ƒ(x) = u−1xu is a ring automorphism of R. The ring automorphisms of this form are called inner automorphisms of R. They form a normal subgroup of the automorphism group of R.
Lie algebra case
An automorphism of a Lie algebra is called an inner automorphism if it is of the form Adg, where Ad is the adjoint map and g is an element of a Lie group whose Lie algebra is . The notion of inner automorphism for Lie algebras is compatible with the notion for groups in the sense that an inner automorphism of a Lie group induces a unique inner automorphism of the corresponding Lie algebra.
If G arises as the group of units of a ring A, then an inner automorphism on G can be extended to a mapping on the projective line over A by the group of units of the matrix ring M2(A). In particular, the inner automorphisms of the classical groups can be extended in that way.
- Abdollahi, A. (2010), Powerful p-groups have non-inner automorphisms of order p and some cohomology, J. Algebra 323: 779–789, doi:10.1016/j.jalgebra.2009.10.013, MR 2574864
- Abdollahi, A. (2007), Finite p-groups of class 2 have noninner automorphisms of order p, J. Algebra 312: 876–879, doi:10.1016/j.jalgebra.2006.08.036, MR 2333188
- Deaconescu, M.; Silberberg, G. (2002), Noninner automorphisms of order p of finite p-groups, J. Algebra 250: 283–287, doi:10.1006/jabr.2001.9093, MR 1898386
- Gaschütz, W. (1966), Nichtabelsche p-Gruppen besitzen äussere p-Automorphismen, J. Algebra 4: 1–2, doi:10.1016/0021-8693(66)90045-7, MR 0193144
- Liebeck, H. (1965), Outer automorphisms in nilpotent p-groups of class 2, J. London Math. Soc. 40: 268–275, MR 0173708
- Remeslennikov, V.N. (2001), "Inner automorphism", in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4
- Weisstein, Eric W., "Inner Automorphism", MathWorld.