Internet Communications Engine
|Stable release||3.5.1 / October 4, 2013|
|Preview release||3.6b / December 29, 2014|
|Type||Remote procedure call framework|
|License||GPL / Proprietary|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2009)|
The Internet Communications Engine, or Ice, is an object-oriented middleware platform that provides object-oriented remote procedure call, grid computing and publish/subscribe functionality developed by ZeroC and dual-licensed under the GNU General Public License and a proprietary license. It supports C++, Java, .NET-languages (such as C# or Visual Basic), Objective-C, Python, PHP and Ruby on most major operating systems such as Linux, Solaris, Windows and Mac OS X. A light variant of Ice runtime, called Ice-e, may run inside mobile phones. As its name indicates, the middleware may be used for applications without the need to use the HTTP protocol and is capable of traversing firewalls unlike other middleware of that time.
ZeroC was founded in 2002 in Florida. Ice was influenced by the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) in its design, and indeed was created by several influential CORBA developers, including Michi Henning. However, according to ZeroC, it was smaller and less complex than CORBA because it was designed by a small group of experienced developers, instead of suffering from design by committee.
In 2004, it was reported that a game called "Wish" by a company named Mutable Realms used Ice. In 2008, it was reported that Big Bear Solar Observatory had used the software since 2005. Some versions were posted to GitHub as part of the Open Microscopy Environment, through the 3.4.2 version in 2011.
Ice components include object-oriented remote-object-invocation, replication, grid-computing, failover, load-balancing, firewall-traversals and publish-subscribe services. To gain access to those services, applications are linked to a stub library or assembly, which is generated from a language-independent IDL-like syntax called slice.
is an object-oriented publish-and-subscribe framework that also supports federation and quality-of-service. Unlike other publish-subscribe frameworks such as Tibco Software's Rendezvous or SmartSockets, message content consist of objects of well defined classes rather than of structured text.
facilitates the deployment of ICE-based software. For example, a user who wishes to deploy new functionality and/or patches to several servers may use IcePatch.
is a proxy-based service to enable communication through firewalls, thus making ICE an internet communication engine.
Slice is a Zeroc-proprietary file format that programmers follow to edit computer-language independent declarations and definitions of classes, interfaces, structures and enumerations. Slice definition files are used as input to the stub generating process. The stub in turn is linked to applications and servers that should communicate with one another based on interfaces and classes as declared/defined by the slice definitions.
Apart from CORBA, classes and interfaces support inheritance and abstract classes. In addition, slice provides configuration options in form of macros and attributes to direct the code generation process. An example is the directive to generate a certain STL
list<double> template instead of the default, which is to generate a STL
- Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
- Structured Data eXchange Format (SDXF)
- Caucho's Hessian
- Cisco's Etch
- Facebook’s Thrift
- Google's Protocol Buffers
- Microsoft's "M"
- http://zeroc.com/languages.html. Retrieved on 2009-08-03.
- http://zeroc.com/icee/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-08-03.
- "Zeroc, Inc". Corporate profile. Manta. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- "Differences between Ice and CORBA". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Michi Henning (February 1, 2004). "Massively Multiplayer Middleware". Queue (ACM). Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Sergij Shumko (November 2, 2008). "Ice middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System" (PDF). Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVII, ASP Conference Series, Vol. XXX, 2008. Quebec City, Canada. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- "ome/zeroc-ice". Source code download. GitHub. Retrieved July 17, 2013.