Invasion of Safwan

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7th military expedition: Safwān
Date Rabī‘ al-Awwal, 2 AH[1] (March/?December, 623 CE)
Location Safawān
Result Failed chase, enemy escapes.[2][3]
Belligerents
Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca
Commanders and leaders
Muḥammad Kurz ibn Jābir al-Fihrī
Strength
70[2] Unknown
Casualties and losses
None None

The Invasion of Safwān or Safawān was the 7th military expedition and the 4th ‘Ghazwah’ (in which Muḥammad himself was the commander) occurring a few days after the Invasion of Dhil ‘Ushayrah[4][5] in the month of Rabī‘ al-Awwal in 2 AH of the Islamic calendar.[1] It is also known as the Preliminary Badr Invasion (بدر الولى غزوة) since this was the first raid of Badr.[6]

Location[edit]

Safwān (سفوان) is a valley located in the neighborhood of Badr southeast to Madīnah.

Background[edit]

The leaders of Quraysh were agitated by the gradual strengthening of the Muslim alliances. In their series of attempts to wipe out the Muslims, they sent a small raiding party under the leadership of Kurz ibn Jābir al-Fihrī who decided to make a guerrilla attack in the outskirts of Madinah. [Kurz later accepted Islam and became a martyr during the Conquest of Mecca in 8 AH.][7]

Description[edit]

Muḥammad stayed only a few nights, less than ten, in Madīnah when he came back from aI-'Ushayrah expedition.[4] The expedition was ordered by Muḥammad after he received intelligence that Kurz ibn Jābir al-Fihri, who was yet to accept Islam at that time, at the head of a small group of polytheists raided the pastures of Madīnah in the darkness of night, rustled & looted some grazing cattle belonging to Muslims and swiftly fled before dawn broke out. Next morning, the Prophet immediately directed about 70 Muslims, who went out in search of him until he reached a valley called Safawān, at the outskirts of Badr. But Kurz ibn Jābir al-Fihrī managed to escape and he could not overtake him.[2][3][8]

Al-Wāqidī stated, "His banner, which was white in color, was entrusted to 'Alī ibn Abū Ṭālib to carry." Both Ibn Hishām and al-Wāqidī related that the Prophet had left Zayd ibn Ḥārithah al-Kalbī in command of Madīnah during his absence.[1][5][9]

Then the apostle returned to Madīnah and stayed there for the rest of Jumāda'l Ākhirah, Rajab, and Sha'bān.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Saifur Raḥmān al-Mubārakpuri, Ar-Raḥīq al-Makhtūm, p128
  2. ^ a b c Al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman (2002), When the Moon Split, DarusSalam, p. 147 
  3. ^ a b Strauch, Sameh (2006), Biography of the Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 400, ISBN 978-9960-9803-2-4 
  4. ^ a b Guillaume, p286
  5. ^ a b Al-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Kathīr, Translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick, volume 2, p240
  6. ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 245, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8 
  7. ^ Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣābah
  8. ^ Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  9. ^ Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d, aṭ-Ṭabaqāt, volume 2, p9