James Phipps (1788–1853) was the first person given the cowpox vaccine by Edward Jenner. Phipps was born to a poor, landless labourer in Berkeley Parish, Gloucestershire. He was baptised in St Mary's parish church, Berkeley, when he was 4. Jenner knew of a local belief that dairy workers who had contracted a relatively mild infection called cowpox were immune to smallpox. On 14 May 1796 he selected "a healthy boy, about eight years old for the purpose of inoculation for the Cow Pox", taking some material from the cowpox pustules of a milkmaid named Sarah Nelmes, cutting into Phipps' arm, and inoculating Phipps. On 1 July 1796, Jenner took material from a smallpox pustule and repeatedly inoculated Phipp's arms with it. Phipps survived, and was subsequently inoculated with smallpox more than 20 times without succumbing to the disease.  Later in Phipps' life, Jenner gave him, his wife and his 2 children a free lease on a house. Phipps attended Jenner's funeral on 3 February 1823.
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