Jane C. Loudon
|Jane C. Webb Loudon|
|Born||August 19, 1807
|Died||July 13, 1858 (aged 51)
|Genres||gardening, science fiction|
|Literary movement||early science fiction, feminist fiction, amateur gardening|
|Notable work(s)||The Mummy!, Gardening for Ladies|
Jane C. Webb Loudon (August 19, 1807 – July 13, 1858) was an English author and early pioneer of science fiction. She wrote before the term was invented, and was discussed for a century as if she wrote Gothic fiction, or fantasy or horror. She also created the first popular gardening manuals, as opposed to specialist horticultural works, and contributed to the work of her husband, John Claudius Loudon.
Jane Webb was born in 1807 to Thomas Webb, Esq., a wealthy manufacturer from Edgbaston, Birmingham and his wife. (Sources vary on her place of birth: according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB), she was born at Ritwell House—possibly the same as Kitwell House at Bartley Green.) After the death of her mother in 1819, she travelled Europe for a year with her father, learning several languages. On their return his business faltered, and as a consequence of over speculation, his fortune was lost. He sold the house in Edgbaston and they moved to another of his properties, Kitwell House at Bartley Green, 6 miles away. He died penniless in 1824, when Jane Webb was only 17.
After her father's death, she found that
"on the winding up of his affairs that it would be necessary to do something for my support. I had written a strange, wild novel, called the Mummy, in which I had laid the scene in the twenty-second century, and attempted to predict the state of improvement to which this country might possibly arrive."
She may have drawn inspiration from the general fashion for anything Pharaonic, inspired by the French researches during the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt; the 1821 public unwrappings of Egyptian mummies in a theatre near Piccadilly, which she may have attended as a girl; and, very likely, the 1818 novel by Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. As Shelley had written of Frankenstein's creation, "A mummy again endued with animation could not be so hideous as that wretch," which may have triggered young Miss Webb's later concept. In any case, at many points she deals in greater clarity with elements from the earlier book: the loathing for the much-desired object, the immediate arrest for crime and attempt to lie one's way out of it, etc. However, unlike the Frankenstein monster, the hideous revived Cheops is not shuffling around dealing out horror and death, but giving canny advice on politics and life to those who befriend him. In some ways The Mummy! may be seen as her reaction to themes in Frankenstein: her mummy specifically says he is allowed life only by divine favor, rather than being indisputably vivified only by mortal science, and so on, as Hopkins' 2003 essay covers in detail.
Unlike many early science fiction works (Shelley's The Last Man, and The Reign of King George VI, 1900-1925, written anonymously in 1763), Loudon did not portray the future as her own day with only political changes. She filled her world with foreseeable changes in technology, society, and even fashion. Her court ladies wear trousers and hair ornaments of controlled flame. Surgeons and lawyers may be steam-powered automatons. A kind of Internet is predicted in it. Besides trying to account for the revivification of the mummy in scientific terms—galvanic shock rather than incantations--"she embodied ideas of scientific progress and discovery, that now read like prophecies" to those later down the 1800s. Her social attitudes have resulted in this book being ranked among feminist novels.
The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century was published anonymously in 1827 by Henry Colburn in three volumes, as was usual in that day so that each small volume could be easily carried around. It drew many favorable reviews, including one in 1829 in The Gardener's Magazine on the inventions proposed in it.
"Among other foreshadowings of things that were to be, was a steam plough, and this attracted the attention of Mr. John C. Loudon, whose numerous and valuable works on gardening, agriculture, etc., are so well known, led to an acquaintance, which terminated in a matrimonial connection."
In February 1830, Loudon mentioned to a female friend of his, who happened to know Jane Webb, that he would like to meet the author of The Mummy; he had written a favorable review of the novel. His friend arranged an introduction. As Jane later wrote, "It may easily be supposed that he was surprised to find the author of the book a woman; but I believe that from that evening he formed an attachment to me, and, in fact, we were married on the 14th of the following September."
In 1829, Loudon published the semi-fictional Stories of a Bride, her second and last foray in fiction.
She became fascinated with her husband's field of agriculture and gardening. She found the gardening manuals of the day confusing as they were written for those already deeply into the field via some apprenticeship: there were no entry-level manuals. She saw the need for and potential interest in such books, and set to writing them as she herself learned: Instructions in Gardening for Ladies; The Ladies' Flower Garden; The Ladies' Companion to the Flower Garden; Botany for Ladies; The Lady's Magazine of Gardening, etc. According to Adams, these became "standard books of reference, and attained a large circulation." She was not only influenced by her husband in gardening, but by John Lindley, whose lectures she attended; she ardently seconded his concepts of gardening as an occupation very fit for ladies.
She learned to plant and tend in the meticulous manner her husband needed for his researches and was his helper, if not co-author, on his books hereafter.
In 1832, they had a daughter, Agnes Loudon. She became an author of children's books.
In 1843, John Loudon died of lung cancer, leaving Jane with a 10-year-old daughter, Agnes. In addition to earning her living by writing, Loudon received "a pension of a hundred pounds per annum, from the Civil List, which she has deservedly gained."
By 1848, Agnes was 16 and extravagant. Jane Loudon worked for two years as editor of The Ladies Companion at Home and Abroad, after which she ceased publishing.
|Library resources about
Jane C. Loudon
|By Jane C. Loudon|
- The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century (1827) 
- Stories of a Bride (1829)
- Young Ladies Book of Botany (1838)
- Gardening for Ladies (1840)
- Botany for Ladies (1842)
- The Ladies Magazine of Gardening (1842)
- The Ladies Companion to the Flower Garden (four volumes, 1840–44)
- My Own Garden (1855)
- Adams (1865) says she envisaged a steam-powered plough; Hopkins (2003) says it was a steam-powered milking machine. The on-line copy of The Mummy!: A Tale of the Twenty-second Century, Volume 1 at Google Books refers only to a steam powered digging-machine on page 71. See Further reading.)
- "Profile of Jane Loudon", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (Oxforddnb.com), Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- Lisa Hopkins, "Jane C. Loudon’s The Mummy!: Mary Shelley Meets George Orwell, and They Go in a Balloon to Egypt", in Cardiff Corvey: Reading the Romantic Text, 10 (June 2003). Cf.ac.uk (2006-01-25). Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- "Profile of Jane Loudon", Birmingham City Council
- Shigitatsu Antiquarian Books. Profile of Jane Webb Loudon (1807–1858). Shigitatsu.com. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- "Britain's fascination with little green men is revealed in science fiction exhibition", The Daily Mail . Dailymail.co.uk (2011-05-20). Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- The reign of George VI. 1900–1925; a forecast written in the year 1763. [London] W. Niccoll, 1763, Published in 1899, Archive.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- H. G. Adams (1857). A Cyclopaedia of Female Biography; consisting of Sketches of all Women, who have been distinguished by great Talents, Strength of Character, Piety, Benevolence, or moral Virtue of any kind; forming a complete Record of Womanly Excellence or Ability: Edited by H. G. Adams. Groombridge. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Mrs. Loudon (Jane) (1828). The mummy!: A tale of the twenty-second century. H. Colburn. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- H.G. Adams, Cyclopaedia of Female Biography; consisting of Sketches of All Women who have been distinguished by Great Talents, Strength of Character, Piety, Benevolence, or Moral Virtue of any kind, forming a complete record of Womanly Excellence or Ability; London, 1865.
- Lisa Hopkins, "Jane C. Loudon’s The Mummy!: Mary Shelley Meets George Orwell, and They Go in a Balloon to Egypt", Cardiff Corvey: Reading the Romantic Text 10 (June 2003). Online: Internet (date accessed): http://www.cf.ac.uk/encap/romtext/articles/cc10_n01.html.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Google Books, The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century (1827)
- Bea Howe, Lady with Green Fingers: The Life of Jane Loudon (London: Country Life, 1961)
- Full text of "The Reign of George VI. 1900–1925; a forecast written in the year 1763". (republished)
- Google Books, The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century (1827)
- "Mrs Loudon & the Victorian Garden". Prints & Books. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- Jane Webb Loudon at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database