Japan–Manchukuo Protocol

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Japan-Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932.
Signature of the Japan-Manchukuo Protocol.

The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol (日満議定書) was signed on 15 September 1932, between Japan and the state of Manchukuo. The Treaty confirmed the recognition by Japan of the Manchukuo state, following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and the establishment of a Manchurian state on 1 March 1932. The treaty also defined a mutual defence agreement, allowing Japanese troops to station in Manchukuo, and thereby effectively occupy the country.[1]

On the Japanese side, the protocol was signed by Nobuyoshi Mutō, and on the Manchu side by Zheng Xiaoxu.

Text (Japanese)[edit]








  1. ^ "The protocol specified a mutual defence arrangement between Japan and Manchukuo and an unconditional stationing of Japanese troops, thereby justifying Japan's occupation of Manchuria and Japan's expanding aggression." in Continent, coast, ocean: dynamics of regionalism in Eastern Asia by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu,Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p.20