Japan–Manchukuo Protocol

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Japan-Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932.
Signature of the Japan-Manchukuo Protocol.

The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol (日満議定書) was signed on 15 September 1932, between Japan and the state of Manchukuo. The Treaty confirmed the recognition by Japan of the Manchukuo state, following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and the establishment of a Manchurian state on 1 March 1932. The treaty also defined a mutual defence agreement, allowing Japanese troops to station in Manchukuo, and thereby effectively occupy the country.[1]

On the Japanese side, the protocol was signed by Nobuyoshi Mutō, and on the Manchu side by Zheng Xiaoxu.

Text (Japanese)[edit]

日本国ハ満洲国カ其ノ住民ノ意思ニ基キテ自由ニ成立シ独立ノ一国家ヲ成スニ至リタル事実ヲ確認シタルニ因リ満洲国ハ中華民国ノ有スル国際約定ハ満洲国ニ適用シ得ヘキ限リ之ヲ尊重スヘキコトヲ宣言セルニ因リ日本国政府及満洲国政府ハ日満両国間ノ善隣ノ関係ヲ永遠ニ鞏固ニシ互ニ其ノ領土権ヲ尊重シ東洋ノ平和ヲ確保センカ為左ノ如ク協定セリ

一、満洲国ハ将来日満両国間ニ別段ノ約定ヲ締結セサル限リ満洲国領域内ニ於テ日本国又ハ日本国臣民カ従来ノ日支間ノ条約、協定其ノ他ノ取極及公私ノ契約ニ依リ有スル一切ノ権利利益ヲ確認尊重スヘシ
二、日本国及満洲国ハ締約国ノ一方ノ領土及治安ニ対スル一切ノ脅威ハ同時ニ締約国ノ他方ノ安寧及存立ニ対スル脅威タルノ事実ヲ確認シ両国共同シテ国家ノ防衛ニ当ルヘキコトヲ約ス之カ為所要ノ日本国軍ハ満洲国内ニ駐屯スルモノトス

本議定書ハ署名ノ日ヨリ効力ヲ生スヘシ

本議定書ハ日本文漢文ヲ以テ各二通ヲ作成ス日本文本文ト漢文本文トノ間ニ解釈ヲ異ニスルトキハ日本文本文ニ拠ルモノトス

右証拠トシテ下名ハ各本国政府ヨリ正当ノ委任ヲ受ケ本議定書ニ署名調印セリ

昭和七年九月十五日即チ大同元年九月十五日新京ニ於テ之ヲ作成ス


Text (English)[edit]

Japan recognizes the establishment of a free and independent Manchoukuo in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants. Manchukuo has declared its intention of abiding by all international agreements pledged by the Republic of China. The government of Japan and the government of Manchukuo have established a perpetual friendly and neighborly relationship, mutually guaranteeing each other's sovereignty. For the peace of East Asia:

1. Manchukuo, insofar as no future Japan-Manchukuo treaties to the contrary, respects the rights of Japanese government, government officials, and private citizens within the borders of Manchukuo.

2. Japan and Manchukuo pledge to cooperate in the maintenance of mutual peaceful existence by banding against common outside threats. The Japanese military forces are to be stationed in Manchukuo to this end.

This protocol is to be effective immediately upon signing.

This protocol is written in Japanese and Chinese; should there be any differences between the two documents due to translation issues, the document written in the Japanese language shall be considered the original.

Evidenced by fully authorized representatives of each government with signature and seal.

Signed on 15 September of the 7th Year of Showa, also 15 September of the 1st Year of Datong, at Xinjing.


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The protocol specified a mutual defence arrangement between Japan and Manchukuo and an unconditional stationing of Japanese troops, thereby justifying Japan's occupation of Manchuria and Japan's expanding aggression." in Continent, coast, ocean: dynamics of regionalism in Eastern Asia by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu,Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p.20