|Born||13 March 1946|
|Other names||Jonathan Roughgarden|
|Residence||Wili Road, Kapa'a, Hawaii|
|Fields||Ecology and Evolutionary Biology|
|Institutions||University of Massachusetts Boston
|Alma mater||University of Rochester|
|Known for||Evolutionary theory on sex|
Joan Roughgarden (born Jonathan Roughgarden on 13 March 1946) is an American ecologist and evolutionary biologist at Stanford University. She is well known for her theistic evolutionism and critical studies on Charles Darwin's theory of Sexual Selection. She was born a male and changed her sex at the age of 52.
Early life and Education
Roughgarden was born in Paterson, New Jersey, USA. She received a Bachelor of Science in biology and a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy from University of Rochester in 1968 and a Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1971. In 1998, Roughgarden transitioned from male to female, and effeminated her first name Jonathan to Joan on his 52th birthday on 13 March.
Roughgarden worked as an Instructor and Assistant Professor of Biology at University of Massachusetts in Boston in 1970. In 1972 she joined the faculty of Biology Science at Stanford University. After becoming full professor he retired in 2011, and became Emeritus Professor. She founded and directed the Earth Systems Program at Stanford and has received awards for service to undergraduate education. In 2012 she moved to Hawaii, where she became an adjunct professor at the Hawaiʻi Institute of Marine Biology. She had advised 20 PhD and 15 postdoctoral students.
Roughgarden has authored books and over 180 scientific articles. In addition to a textbook on ecological and evolutionary theory in 1979, Roughgarden has carried out ecological field studies with Caribbean lizards and with barnacles and their larvae along the California coast. In 2004 Roughgarden published a challenge to sexual selection titled Evolution's Rainbow: a critique of Darwin's sexual selection theory based on instances in which animals do not follow traditional sex roles where the male attempts to impress the female, and the female chooses her mate. It also contains a literature survey on unexpected sexual behavior in many species of animals.
An article published by her lab on these ideas received criticism in the pages of the journal Science. Forty scientists produced ten critical letters, some of which were vitriolic. However, Roughgarden, quoted as being "not altogether surprised" by the volume of dissent, argued that her team had replied to most of the criticisms.
In The Genial Gene (2009) the case against sexual selection theory is continued and social-selection theory presented as an alternative. It lists 26 phenomena not explained by current sexual-selection theory that are better explained by social selection. According to Roughgarden, sexual selection theory derives from a view of natural behavior predicated on the selfish-gene concept, competition and deception, whereas the social-selection theory derives from teamwork, honesty, and genetic equality. She continues to make analytical studies that social selection is a more credible explanation in terms of population as a whole, as sexual selection is confined to interaction between individuals.
Roughgarden has written on the relationship between Christianity and science. Her book Evolution and Christian Faith: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist presents scripture passages that emphasize her belief that the Bible does not conflict with evolutionary biology and relates Christianity and evolution by asserting that all life is interconnected, as members of a faith community are connected. Roughgarden opposes the theories of creationism and intelligent design, but asserts her belief in God's involvement in evolution. She attended and was a speaker at the Beyond Belief symposium in November 2006.
Awards and honours
- Stonewall Book Award, 2005
- Dinkelspiel Award for Undergraduate Teaching, Stanford University, in 1995
- Visiting Research Fellow at the Merton College, University of Oxford, in 1994
- Elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1993
- Fellow of Guggenheim Foundation in 1985
- University Fellow, Stanford University in 1978
Roughgarden also serve as Associate Editor in Philosophy and Theory in Biology (since 2008), American Naturalist (1984-1989), Oecologia (1979-1982), and Theoretical Population Biology (1975-1986). She was the Vice-Chair and Chair of Theoretical Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America during 2002-2003. She has served on the Nonprofit Organization Board for the Oceanic Society (San Francisco), the EPA Science Advisory Board Committee on Valuating the Protection of Ecological Systems and Services, and the Science Advisory Boards of the Pacific Ocean Conservation Network (California), and the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (Santa Barbara).
- Roughgarden, J. The Genial Gene: Deconstructing Darwinian Selfishness. Hardcover ed. University of California Press, 2009 ISBN 978-0-520-25826-6
- Roughgarden, J. Evolution and Christian Faith: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist. Hardcover ed. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2006. ISBN 1-59726-098-3
- Roughgarden, J. Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender and Sexuality in Nature and People. Paperback ed. Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24073-1
- Roughgarden, J. Primer of Ecological Theory. 1st ed. Prentice Hall, 1997.
- Roughgarden, J. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution and Plate Tectonics. Hardcover ed. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
- Roughgarden, J, May, R. M., and Levin, S. A. (eds.). Perspectives in Ecological Theory. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
- Ehrlich, P. R., and Roughgarden, J. Science of Ecology. Hardcover ed. Prentice Hall, 1987.
- Roughgarden, J. Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: an Introduction. 1st ed. Prentice Hall, 1979.
- Yoon, Carol Kaesuk. "SCIENTIST AT WORK: Joan Roughgarden; A Theorist With Personal Experience Of the Divide Between the Sexes". The Newyork Times. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Curriculum Vitae: Joan Roughgarden". Stanford University. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Jonah Lehrer. "The Effeminate Sheep". Seed (June/July 2006). Reprinted in Richard Preston, ed. (2007). The Best American Science and Nature Writing. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-72231-0.
- "Sexual selection alternative slammed". Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- Folse HJ, 3rd; Roughgarden, J (2010). "What is an individual organism? A multilevel selection perspective". The Quarterly Review of Biology 85 (4): 447–72. PMID 21243964.
- Roughgarden, J. (2012). "The social selection alternative to sexual selection". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367 (1600): 2294–2303. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0282. PMC PMC3391423. PMID 22777017.
- "First Congregational Church of Berkeley: Event Details". Retrieved 2006-09-19.
- Roughgarden, Joan. Evolution and Christian Faith: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 2006.
- "Science Matters". California Science Center.
- Joan Roughgarden profile – Stanford Univ.
- Joan Roughgarden 50-min interv. – Web Radio (Gender Talk)
- Seed Magazine article on sexual selection theory
- Video (with mp3 available) of conversation with Roughgarden and Robert Wright on Bloggingheads.tv