Johann Bernhard Basedow
Johann Bernhard Basedow (September 11, 1724, – July 25, 1790) was a German educational reformer, teacher and writer. He founded the Philanthropinum, a short-lived but influential progressive school in Dessau, and was the author of "Elementarwerk", a popular illustrated textbook for children.
Life and work
Basedow was born in Hamburg, the son of a wigmaker. His father has been described as "severe almost to brutality", his mother as "melancholy almost to madness", which made his childhood a less than happy one. It was planned that he should follow his father's profession, but, at the age of 14, he ran away from home, finding employment as a servant of a country physician in Holstein. His employee recognized Johann's extraordinary intellectual gifts and sent him home to his parents with a letter which persuaded them to allow their son to be schooled at the Johanneum in Hamburg. Here, Johann came under the influence of the rationalist H.S. Reimarus (1694–1768), author of the famous Wolfenbütteler Fragmente, published by Lessing .
In 1744, Basedow went to the University of Leipzig as a student of theology, but turned instead to the study of philosophy, being particularly influenced by Wolff's "Philosophy of Reason". This made him examine his own Christian faith, arriving at a position that was "in a centre between Christianism and naturalism". He rejected his clerical vocation and turned instead to radicalism and reformism.
Teacher and academic
Between 1749 and 1753, Basedow was a private tutor to the son of Herr Von Quaalen, a nobleman living in Borghorst, Holstein. He developed new teaching methods based on conversation and play with the child, and a program of physical development. Such was his success that he wrote a treatise on his methods, "On the best and hitherto unknown method of teaching children of noblemen", which he presented to the University of Kiel in 1752, and obtained the degree of Master of Arts.
In 1753, he was appointed professor of moral philosophy and belles-lettres at Sorø Academy in Denmark. He proved to be a very popular teacher and was also called on to lecture on Theology. However, his fearless, anti-establishment views and the publication of a book in 1758, "Practische Philosophie" ("Practical Philosophy"), in which he expounded his unorthodox religious position, led, in 1761, to his removal from this post and transfer to Altona; here his published works brought him into conflict with the orthodox clergy. He was forbidden to give further instruction, but did notself with the same ardour to education, of which he conceived the project of a general reform in Germany.
The Elementary Book and Philanthropinum
In 1768, strongly influenced by Rousseau's ideas on education in Emile, Basedow published a book, Vorstellung an Menschenfreunde für Schulen, nebst dem Plan eines Elementarbuches der menschlichen Erkenntnisse ("Idea to philanthropists for schools, along with the plan of an elementary book of human knowledge"). He proposed the reform of schools and of the common methods of instruction, the establishment of an institute for qualifying teachers and solicited subscriptions for the printing of a new, illustrated, book, Elementarwerk ("Elementary Book"), where his principles were to be explained at length. The subscriptions for this work amounted to 15,000 thalers, and in 1774 he was able to publish it in four volumes, with illustrations by Daniel Chodowiecki. The Elementarwerk contained a complete system of primary education, intended to develop the intelligence of the pupils and to bring them, so far as possible, into contact with realities, not with mere words; it was the first picture textbook for children to be published since the "Orbis Pictus" of Comenius in 1664. There was also a companion "Methodenbuch" (Method Book) to assist teachers and parents.
Basedow was a friend of Goethe, and through him made the acquantance of Prince Franz of Anhalt-Dessau, who became a firm supporter of Basedow's plans for educational reform and agreed to back the founding of a new school, the Philanthropinum, in Dessau. The school opened in December 1774, its keynote being, "everything according to nature". Rich and poor were to be educated together, the curriculum was practically-based and conducted in German (rather than Latin or Greek), handicrafts were taught, there was an emphasis on games and physical exercise, and school uniform was made simple and more comfortable. Although the school was open for only a relatively short time until 1793, its reforming influence proved to be considerable and inspired the founding of many similar institutions in Germany and abroad.
Basedow, unfortunately, was not disposed by nature or habit to succeed in an employment which required the greatest regularity, patience and attention; his temper was intractable, and his management of the Philanthropinum was one long quarrel with his colleagues. He resigned his directorship of the institution in 1778.
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Books by Basedow:
- Philalethes: Neue Aussichten in die Wahrheiten und Religion der Vernunft bis in die Gränzen der glaubwürdigen Offenbarung (Iversen, 1764). 2 vols.
- Johann Bernhard Basedows bewiesene Grundsätze der reinen Mathematik: bd. Geometrie und etwas von dem unendlichen (Bey S. L. Crusius, 1774).
- Bernhards aus Nordalbingien (oder Basedows) Vermächtniss für die Gewissen (Gedruckt bey Heinrich Heybruch, 1774).
- Praktische Philosophie für alle Stände (Crusius, 1777). 2 vols.
About Basedow and his work:
- Meier, Johann Christian. Johann Bernhard Basedow: Leben Charakter und Schriften (Hoffmann, 1791). 2 vols.
- Rathmann, Heinrich. Beiträge zur Lebensgeschichte Joh. Bernh. Basedows (Pansa, 1791)
- Lang, Ossian Herbert. Basedow, his educational work and principles (New York, Kellogg, 1891).
- Quick, Robert Hebert. Essays on educational reformers (New York D. Appleton, 1893) pp. 273-289.
- Diestelmann, Richard. Johann Bernhard Basedow (R. Voigtländer's Verlag, 1897).
- Swet, Kurt. Beiträge zur lebensgeschichte und pädagogik Joh. Bernh. Basedows (Zwickau, Druck von C. A. Günther nachfolger, 1898).
- Graves, Frank Pierrepont. Great Educators of Three Centuries. Their Work and Its Influence on Modern Education (Macmillan, 1912,) p. 112 ff.
- Duggan, Stephen. A student's textbook in the history of education (New York, D. Appleton, 1916) pp. 216–9.
- Cubberley, Ellwood Patterson. Readings in the history of education (Boston, New York [etc.] Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920) pp. 436–9.
- Reble, A. Johann Bernhard Basedow (Schöningh, 1965).
- Biography (Answers.com)