Johannes Peter Müller
|Johannes Peter Müller|
Johannes Peter Müller
14 July 1801|
|Died||28 April 1858
|Alma mater||Bonn University|
|Doctoral advisor||Philipp Franz von Walther
|Doctoral students||Hermann von Helmholtz
|Influenced||Charles Scott Sherrington|
Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.
Early years and education 
Müller was born in Koblenz. He was the son of a poor shoemaker, and was about to be apprenticed to a saddler when his talents attracted the attention of his teacher, and he prepared himself for the Roman Catholic priesthood. During his college course at Koblenz, he devoted himself to the classics and made his own translations of Aristotle. At first, his intention was to become a priest.
When he was 18 though, his love for natural science became dominant, and he turned to medicine, entering the University of Bonn in 1819. There he received his M.D.. He then studied at Berlin. There, under the influence of Hegel and Rudolphi, he was induced to reject all systems of physiology which were not founded upon a strict observation of nature.
Career summary 
He became Privatdozent of physiology and comparative anatomy at Bonn in 1824, extraordinary professor of physiology in 1826, and ordinary professor in 1830. In 1833 he went to the Humboldt University of Berlin, where he filled the chair of anatomy and physiology until his death.
Early research 
Müller made contributions in numerous domains of physiology, in particular increasing understanding of the voice, speech and hearing, as well as the chemical and physical properties of lymph, chyle and blood. His first important works, Zur vergleichenden Physiologie des Gesichtsinns (“On the comparative physiology of sight,” Leipzig, 1826) and Über die phantastischen Gesichtserscheinungen (“On visual hallucination,” Coblenz, 1826), are of a subjective philosophical tendency. The first work concerns the most important facts as to human and animal sight, the second sounds depths of difficult psychological problems. He soon became the leader in the science of the morphological treatment of zoology as well as of experimental physiology. To his research (1830) is due the settlement of the theory of reflex action.
Elements of Physiology 
In the century preceding Müller's work, many contributions to physiological science had been made. Müller gave order to these facts, developed general principles and showed physiologists how recent discoveries in physics and chemistry could be applied to their work. The appearance of his magnum opus, Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, between 1833 and 1840 (translated into English as “Elements of Physiology” by William Baly, and published in London 1837–1843) marked the beginning of a new period in the study of physiology. In it, for the first time, the results of human and comparative anatomy, as well as of chemistry and other departments of physical science, and tools like the microscope, were brought to bear on the investigation of physiological problems.
The most important portion of the work was that dealing with nervous action and the mechanism of the senses. Here he stated the principle, not before recognized, that the kind of sensation following stimulation of a sensory nerve does not depend on the mode of stimulation but upon the nature of the sense organ. Thus light, pressure, or mechanical stimulation acting on the retina and optic nerve invariably produces luminous impressions. This he termed the law of specific energies of the sense.
The book became the leading textbook in physiology for much of the nineteenth century. It manifests Müller’s interests in vitalism, philosophy and scientific rigor. He discusses the difference between inorganic and organic matter. He considers in detail various physiological systems of a wide variety of animals, but attributes the indivisible whole of an organism to the presence of a soul. He also proposes that living organisms possess a life-energy for which physical laws can never fully account.
Edward Forbes F.R.S. in his A History of British Starfishes, and Other Animals of the Class Echinodermata (1841) in his preface refers to Muller as the "one of the greatest living physiologists, Muller of Berlin".
Later years 
In the later part of his life he chiefly devoted himself to comparative anatomy. Fishes and marine invertebrata were his favorite subjects. He took 19 trips to the Baltic and North Sea, the Adriatic and the Mediterranean to investigate salt-water life.
Müller mentored such distinguished scientists and physiologists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Theodor Schwann, Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Carl Ludwig and Ernst Haeckel. In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Müller died in Berlin in 1858. In 1899, a bronze statue was erected in his memory at Koblenz.
- De Respiratione Fœtus (Leipzig, 1823), a prize dissertation
- Zur vergleichenden Physiologie des Gesichtssinns (1826)
- Über die phantastischen Gesichtserscheinungen (1826)
- Bildungsgeschichte der Genitalien (1830), in which he traced the development of the Müllerian duct
- De glandularum secernentium structura penitiori (1830)
- Beiträge zur Anatomie und Naturgeschichte der Amphibien (1832)
- Der Tabak in geschichtlicher, botanischer, chemischer und medizinischer Hinsicht (Berlin, 1832)
- Vergleichende Anatomie der Myxinoiden (1834–1843)
- Ueber die organischen Nerven der erectilen männlichen Geschlechtsorgane . . . (Berlin, 1835)
- Ueber den feineren Bau der krankhaften Geschwülste (“On the structural details of malignant tumors,” Coblenz, 1838), unfinished — a pioneering use of microscopical research in the investigation of pathological anatomy
- Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen (1841) with F. G. J. Henle
- [System der Asteriden at Google Books System der Asteriden]. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn (1842) with F. H. Troschel
- Horae ichthyologicae (1845–1849) with Troschel
- Über die fossilen Reste der Zeuglodonten . . . (1848)
- Über Synopta digitata und über die Erzeugung von Schnecken in Holothurien (1852)
After the death of J. F. Meckel (1781–1833) he edited the Archiv fur Anatomie und Physiologie.
Further reading 
- Virchow, Johannes Müller, Eine Gedächtnisrede (Berlin, 1858)
- De Bois-Reymond, (Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie, Berlin, 1859), containing a list of his works
- Bischoff, Ueber Johannes Müller und sein Verhältnis zum jetztigen Standpunkt der Physiologie (Munich, 1858)
- Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. ix., p. 556.
See also 
- "Müller, Johannes". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- "Johann Müller (1)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- "Müller, Johannes". Encyclopaedia Britannica 17 (9th ed.). 1884.
- Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de
- The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
- Short biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
- Berrios G E (2005) On the fantastic apparitions of vision by Johannes Müller. History of Psychiatry. 16:229-46. 
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Müller, Johannes". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- "Müller, Johannes". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- "Müller, Johannes". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Müller, Johannes Peter". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Müller's Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen für Vorlesungen (1837–1840) as fullscan from the original
- "Müller, Johannes". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
- Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "Müller, Johannes". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.