John of Fordun
John of Fordun (before 1360 – c. 1384) was a Scottish chronicler. It is generally stated that he was born at Fordoun, Mearns. It is certain that he was a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in the St Machar's Cathedral of Aberdeen.
The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt to write a continuous history of Scotland. We are informed that Fordun's patriotic zeal was roused by the removal or destruction of many national records by Edward III of England and that he traveled in England and Ireland, collecting material for his history.
Collectively, this work, divided into five books, is known as the Chronica Gentis Scotorum. The first three are unverified historically, which therefore casts doubt on their accuracy, yet they also form the groundwork on which Boece and George Buchanan afterwards based some of their historical writings. Thomas Innes argued that some of the history these men presented was doubtful in his Critical Essay (i, pp. 201–2,4), but Innes himself had his own political agenda and his work has also been criticized by modern historians. The 4th and 5th books contain much valuable information, and become more authentic the more nearly they approach the author's own time. The 5th book concludes with the death of King David I in 1153.
Besides these five books, published around 1360, Fordun also wrote part of another book, and collected materials for bringing down the history to a later period. These materials were used by a continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and who is identified with Walter Bower, abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm. The additions of Bower form eleven books, and bring down the narrative to the death of King James I in 1437. According to the custom of the time, the continuator did not hesitate to interpolate Fordun's portion of the work, with additions of his own, and the whole history thus compiled is known as the Scotichronicon.
The first printed edition of Fordun's work was that of Thomas Gale in his Scriptores quindecim (vol. iii), which was published in 1691. This was followed by Thomas Hearne's (5 vol.) edition in 1722. The whole work, including Bower's continuation, was published by Walter Goodall at Edinburgh in 1759. In 1871 and 1872 Fordun's chronicle, in the original Latin and in an English translation, was edited by William F Skene in The Historians of Scotland. The preface to this edition collects all the biographical details and gives full references to manuscripts and editions.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Wikisource
- For further discussion of the political motivations which may have influenced the approach taken in the Chronica Gentis Scotorum, see : Goldstein, J. The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland University of Nebraska Press (1993); esp. Chapter 4.