Justus van Gent
Very little is known about the early life of Joos van Wassenhove. It is believed that the artist referred to by Vasari and Guicciardini as 'Giusto da Guanto' (i.e. 'Justus of Ghent') is the painter Joos van Wassenhove, who became a member of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1460 and a freemaster in the Ghent painters' guild in 1464. While in Ghent, he vouched for Hugo van der Goes, Sanders Bening and Agnes van den Bossche when they entered the local painters' guild. Van Wassenhove seems to have enjoyed an international reputation as in 1467-68 he received payment for the production of 40 coats of arms of the Pope. Van Wassenhove travelled to Rome around 1470.
Between 1473 and 1475 he is documented in Urbino, where he operated a workshop. He was one of the court painters of duke Federico da Montefeltro, a leading politician and art patron of the Italian Renaissance. Da Montefeltro gave him the commission for the Communion of the Apostles painted for the brotherhood of the Corpus Domini in Urbino between 1472 and 1474. A portrait of da Montefeltro (with his broken nose in profile) in the company of Caterino Zeno, a Persian envoy to the court of Urbino, is included in the picture. Van Wassenhove participated in the decoration of the ducal residences in Urbino and Gubbio. This included a commission for a portrait series of 'uomini famosi' (famous men) for the study of da Montefeltro (Louvre Museum, Paris and Galleria Nazionale, Urbino). He died around 1580.
Two works from the time before he left for Italy have been preserved: the monumental Crucifixion Altarpiece or Calvary Triptych (in the Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent) and the Devotion of the Kings (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). The latter painting was possibly commissioned for a convent near Burgos in Spain. For this reason the picture was painted on canvas so it could be rolled up for easy transport. The stage-like space and arrangement of the main figures in two parallel diagonal lines seem to suggest an inspiration by theatre reenactments of the story of the Epiphany. Both these early paintings are characterized by monumentality. The facial features of the figures and colour spectrum are closely related to the oeuvre of Hugo van der Goes. The two masters likely worked together before van Wassenhove left for Rome. There is also a relationship with the work of Dieric Bouts.
The Communion of the Apostles for the Confraternity of Corpus Domini in Urbino shows some adaptations from the characteristically Netherlandish high viewpoint and decoratively organized surface of the Calvary Triptych. Van Wassenhove also increased the size of the figures relative to the picture space. The work cites Dieric Bouts' Martyrdom of St Erasmus in the figure of the Persian envoy. All other works attributed to Joos van Wassenhove were painted on commission by Federico da Montefeltro.
A series of 28 portraits of "Famous men," which are still in existence and in the collections of the Louvre and in the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche in Urbino, have been attributed to Joos van Wassenhove. The paintings appear to be made by a painter grounded in Netherlandish technique who had become strongly influenced by Italian painting. Joos van Wassenhove is therefore a good candidate for being the author of these works. However, the attribution to him of some or all of the works in the Famous men series has been contested. Various other artists have been proposed as the author of the Famous men series, of whom the Spanish painter Pedro Berruguete has received the strongest support. Although the matter of attribution is still unresolved the known pictures of this Spanish artist are inferior in style and technique to these in the Famous men series and are unlikely the work of the same artist.
Further attributed to Joos van Wassenhove are two paintings from a series on the liberal arts: Music and Rhetoric (both at the National Gallery London). Two other paintings from this series were destroyed during World War II.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Justus van Gent.|
- Adoration of the Magi
- Calvary Tryptich
- Communion of the Apostles
- Famous Men
- Liberal Arts
- Joos van Wassenhove at Flemish primitives
- Paula Nuttall. "Justus of Ghent." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 25 July 2014
- The Adoration of the Magi, Justus of Ghent (Joos van Wassenhove) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art website
- Lauts, Jan; Herzner, Irmlind Luise: Federico da Montefeltro. Herzog von Urbino : Kriegsherr, Friedensfürst und Förderer der Künste. München 2001. ISBN 3-422-06354-4
- Marcello Simonetta, Jonathan James Graham Alexander, Federico da Montefeltro and his library, Pierpont Morgan Library, Y.Press, 2007, p. 102
- Joos van Wassenhove at Artcyclopedia
- The Gubbio Studiolo and its conservation, volumes 1 & 2, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Justus van Gent (see index)