Karakalpakstan

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Coordinates: 43°10′N 58°45′E / 43.167°N 58.750°E / 43.167; 58.750

Republic of Karakalpakstan

Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası
Қарақалпақстан Республикасы
Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi
Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Karakalpakstan (purple) with respect to the rest of Uzbekistan and neighbouring countries.
Location of Karakalpakstan (purple) with respect to the rest of Uzbekistan and neighbouring countries.
Capital Nukus[1]
Official languages
Demonym Karakalpak
Government Autonomous republic of Uzbekistan[2]
 -  President Musa Erniyazov
Autonomy within Uzbekistan
 -  First mention of Karakalpaks 16th century[3] 
 -  Ceded to Russian Empire 1867[4] 
Area
 -  Total 164,900 km2
61,800 sq mi
Population
 -  2013 estimate 1,711,800
 -  Density 7.5/km2
19.4/sq mi
Currency Som (UZS)

Karakalpakstan (Karakalpak: Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası (Қарақалпақстан Республикасы); Uzbek: Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi (Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. It occupies the whole northwestern end of Uzbekistan. The capital is Nukus (Karakalpak: No'kis (Нөкис)). The Republic of Karakalpakstan has an area of 160,000 square kilometres (62,000 sq mi). Its territory covers the classical land of Khwarezm, though in classical Persian literature the area was known as "Kāt" (کات).

History[edit]

From about 500 BC to 500 AD, the region of Karakalpakstan was a thriving agricultural area supported by extensive irrigation.[5] The Karakalpak people, who were formerly nomadic herders and fishers, were first recorded in the 16th century.[3] Karakapakstan was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Khanate of Khiva in 1873.[6] Under Soviet rule, it was originally an autonomous area within Kazakhstan before becoming part of Uzbekistan in 1936.[4] The region was probably at its most prosperous in the 1960s and 1970s when irrigation from the Amu Darya was being expanded. Today, however, the drainage of the Aral Sea has rendered Karakalpakstan one of Uzbekistan's poorest regions.[3] The region is suffering from extensive drought, partly due to weather patterns, but also largely because the Amu and Syr Darya rivers are exploited mostly in the eastern part of the country. Crop failures have deprived about 48,000 of their main source of income and shortages of potable water have created a surge of infectious diseases.[7]

Geography[edit]

Karakalpakstan is mostly desert and is located in western Uzbekistan near the Aral Sea, in the lowest part of the Amu Darya basin.[1][7][8] It has an area of 164,900 km²[2] and is surrounded by desert. The Kyzyl Kum desert is located to the east and the Kara Kum desert is located to the south. A rocky plateau extends west to the Caspian Sea.[5]

Politics[edit]

The republic of Karakalpakstan is formally sovereign and shares veto power over decisions concerning it with Uzbekistan. According to the constitution, relations between Karakalpakstan and Uzbekistan are "regulated by treaties and agreements" and any disputes are "settled by way of reconciliation". Its right to secede is limited by the veto power of Uzbekistan's legislature over any decision to secede.[2]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Karakalpakstan is estimated to be around 1.7 million,[9] and in 2007 it was estimated that about 400,000 of the population are of the Karakalpak ethnic group, 400,000 are Uzbeks, and 300,000 are Kazakhs.[3] Their name means "Black Hat", but Karakalpak culture was so lost through Sovietization that the original meaning of the black hat is now unknown[verification needed]. The Karakalpak language is considered closer to Kazakh than to Uzbek.[10] The language was written in a modified Cyrillic in Soviet times and in the Latin alphabet since 1996.

Other than the capital Nukus, large cities include Xojeli (Uzbek: Xo'jayli; Russian: Ходжейли), Taxiatosh (Uzbek: Taxiatosh; Russian: Тахиаташ), Shimbai (Шымбай), Konirat (Қоңырат) and Moynaq (Uzbek: Mo'ynoq; Russian: Муйнак), a former Aral Sea port now some 85 kilometres (53 mi) inland.

Economy[edit]

The economy of the region, formerly heavily dependent on fisheries, is now supported by cotton, rice and melons. Hydroelectric power from a large Soviet-built station on the Amu Darya is also important.

The Amu Darya delta was once heavily populated, and supported extensive irrigation based agriculture for thousands of years. Under the Khorezm, the area attained considerable power and prosperity. However, the gradual climate change over the centuries, accelerated by human induced evaporation of the Aral Sea in the late 20th century has created a desolate scene in the region. The ancient oasis of rivers, lakes, reed marshes, forests and farms are drying up and being poisoned by wind-borne salt as well as fertilizer and pesticide residues from the dried bed of the Aral Sea. Summer temperatures have risen 10 degrees Celsius and winter temperatures have decreased by 10 degrees Celsius. The rate of anemia, respiratory diseases, and other health problems has risen dramatically.[11]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Districts of Karakalpakstan.
Largest cities of Karakalpakstan
District name District capital
1 Amudarya District Mang‘it
2 Beruniy District Beruniy
3 Shimbay District Shimbay
4 Ellikqala District Bustan
5 Kegeyli District Kegeyli
6 Mo‘ynaq District Mo‘ynaq
7 Nukus District Oqmang‘it
8 Qanliko‘l District Qanliko‘l
9 Qo‘n‘irat District Qo‘n‘irat
10 Qarao‘zak District Qarao‘zak
11 Shumanay District Shumanay
12 Taxtako‘pir District Taxtako‘pir
13 To‘rtkul District To‘rtkul
14 Xojeli District Xojeli

*Kegeyli district was created in 2004 by the merger of former Bozatau district (the northern part of district 5 on the map) and former Kegeyli district (the south-eastern part of district 5). This merger was effected by Resolution 598-II of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan (11 February 2004) and Resolution 225 of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan (11 May 2004), which abolished Bozatau district and created the enlarged Kegeyli district. Prior to that date, there were 15 districts in Karakalpakstan. See Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and Karakalpakstan on gov.uz.

Independence movement[edit]

In 2008, the website of Radio Free Europe broadcast a report on the beginnings of an independence movement in Karakalpakstan due to the bad environmental and social conditions of the republic, though other residents and politicians from the region strongly deny the existence or desire for a genuine independence movement.[12]

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

In 2009, the first radio station of Karakalpakstan was opened. The station is called Nukus FM, which broadcasts on radiowave 100.4 MHz and only in Nukus. The radio doesn't broadcast online, but one can listen to the samples online on the music website of Karakalpakstan.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Batalden, Stephen K.; Batalden, Sandra L. (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 187. ISBN 0-89774-940-5. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  2. ^ a b c Roeder, Philip G. (2007). Where nation-states come from: institutional change in the age of nationalism. Princeton University Press. p. 417. ISBN 0-691-13467-7. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  3. ^ a b c d Mayhew, Bradley (2007). Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan. Lonely Planet. p. 258. ISBN 1-74104-614-9. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  4. ^ a b Europa Publications Limited (2002). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 536. ISBN 1-85743-137-5. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  5. ^ a b Bolton, Roy (2009). Russian Orientalism: Central Asia and the Caucasus. Sphinx Fine Art. p. 54. ISBN 1-907200-00-2. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  6. ^ Richardson, David; Richardson, Sue (2012). Qaraqalpaqs of the Aral Delta. Prestel Verlag. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-7913-4738-74 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  7. ^ a b Thomas, Troy S.; Kiser, Stephen D.; Casebeer, William D. (2005). Warlords rising: confronting violent non-state actors. Lexington Books. p. 254. ISBN 0-7391-1190-6. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  8. ^ Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy (2011). The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and Lessons Learned. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 3642221211. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  9. ^ The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics
  10. ^ Karakalpakstan: Uzbekistan’s latent conflict, January 6, 2012
  11. ^ Pearce, Fred (2007). When the Rivers Run Dry: Water, the Defining Crisis of the Twenty-first Century. Beacon Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8070-8573-8. 
  12. ^ Saidazimova, Gulnoza (2008). Uzbekistan: Shadowy Group Agitates For 'Free Karakalpakstan', Radio Free Europe, April 5, 2008
  13. ^ Nukus FM samples.

External links[edit]