Kholm Governorate or Chełm Governorate (Russian: Холмская Губерния, Kholmskaya Guberniya; Polish: gubernia chełmska) was an administrative unit (governorate) of the Russian Empire. Its capital was in Chełm (Russian and Ukrainian: Холм Kholm).
According to Russian statistical sources in 1914, while the area of the governorate was 10 460 km2, it was inhabited by approximately 912,095 inhabitants of whom about 50.1% were Little Russians (a demonym used for Ukrainians in Tsarist Russia) (446,839), 30.5% Poles, 15.8% Jews. However during the retreat of the Russian Army in the summer of 1915, the Russian command gave orders to evacuate the "Russian population" of Kholm region. Due to that policy, about 2/3 of the Ukrainian population was deported to the Russian Empire in June-July of 1915. The number of deported population was reaching some 300,000 people and thus changing significantly the national composition in the region.