Law enforcement in New York

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Law enforcement in New York State is the responsibility of a very large number of law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement is conducted by police departments, fire departments, sections of other government departments, educational institutions, private companies and charities at federal, state, county, city, town and occasionally village levels. There are two types of law enforcement agents: "police officers" and "peace officers".

Police officers[edit]

Persons designated as police officers[edit]

The following are defined as "police officers" by subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law. Where an entry is in bold, click the "show" link to the far right to see the full entry. Notes in italics are not part of the law.

1. A sworn member of the Division of State Police.

2. Sheriffs, under-sheriffs and deputy sheriffs of counties outside of New York City.

3. A sworn officer of an authorized county or county parkway police department.

4. A sworn officer of an authorized police department or force of a city, town, village or police district.

5. A sworn officer of an authorized police department of an authority or a sworn officer of the state regional park police in the Office of Parks and Recreation.

6. A sworn officer of the Capital Police Force of the Office of General Services.

7. An investigator employed in the office of a district attorney.

8. An investigator employed by a commission created by an interstate compact who is, to a substantial extent, engaged in the enforcement of the criminal laws of this state.

9. The chief and deputy fire marshals, the supervising fire marshals and the fire marshals of the Bureau of Fire Investigation of the New York City Fire Department.

10. A sworn officer of the Division of Law Enforcement in the Department of Environmental Conservation. (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Police)

11. A sworn officer of a police force of a public authority created by an interstate compact.

12. Long Island Railroad Police - defunct agency, merged with the Metro-North Railroad Police to form the Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police (MTA Police) in 1998.

13. A special investigator employed in the statewide Organized Crime Task Force, while performing his assigned duties pursuant to Section 70-A of the executive law.

14. A sworn officer of the Westchester County Department of Public Safety services who, on or prior to June 30, 1979 was appointed as a sworn officer of the Division of Westchester County Parkway Police; or who was appointed on or after July 1, 1979 to the title of Police Officer, Sergeant, Lieutenant, Captain or Inspector; or who, on or prior to January 31, 1983, was appointed as a Westchester County deputy sheriff.

15. A sworn officer of the water-supply police employed by the City of New York, appointed to protect the sources, works, and transmission of water supplied to the city of New York, and to protect persons on or in the vicinity of such water sources, works, and transmission. (New York City Department of Environmental Protection Police)

16. Persons appointed as railroad policemen pursuant to Section 88 of the railroad law.

18. Any employee of the Suffolk County Department of Parks who is appointed as a Suffolk County Park Police Officer. (Suffolk County Park Police)

19. A University Police Officer appointed by the State University of New York pursuant to Paragraph 1 of Subdivision Two of Section Three Hundred Fifty-five of the education law. (State University of New York Police)

20. A sworn officer of the Department of Public Safety of the Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority who has achieved or been granted the status of sworn police officer and has been certified by the Division of Criminal Justice Services as successfully completing an approved basic course for police officers.

21. Persons appointed as Indian police officers pursuant to Section One Hundred Fourteen of the Indian law.

22. Supervisor of forest ranger services; assistant supervisor of forest ranger services; forest ranger 3; forest ranger 2; forest ranger 1 employed by the state Department of Environmental Conservation or sworn officer of the Division of Forest Protection and Fire Management in the Department of Environmental Conservation responsible for wild land search and rescue, wild land fire management in the state as prescribed in subdivision eighteen of section 9-0105 and title eleven of article nine of the environmental conservation law, exercising care, custody and control of state lands administered by the Department of Environmental Conservation.

Peace officers[edit]

Peace officers are controlled by Article 2 of the Consolidated Laws of Criminal Procedure. This article is split into five sections:

  • 2.10 - Persons designated as peace officers.
  • 2.15 - Federal law enforcement officers; powers.
  • 2.16 - Watershed protection and enforcement officers; powers, duties, jurisdiction for arrests.
  • 2.20 - Powers of peace officers.
  • 2.30 - Training requirements for peace officers - covered separately below

Persons designated as peace officers[edit]

This section stipulates who is designated as a peace officer. Whilst designation as a peace officer normally allows the designee to carry firearms, a number of the following designations have that permission specifically revoked, and those designees must acquire a firearms license available to the general public (under Art. 400 of the Penal Law). Where an entry is in bold, click the "show" link to the far right to see the full entry. Notes in italics are not part of the law.

1. Constables or police constables of a town or village, provided such designation is not inconsistent with local law.

2. The sheriff, undersheriff and deputy sheriffs of New York City (New York City Sheriff's Office) and sworn officers of the Westchester County Department of Public Safety services appointed after January 31, 1983 to the title of Public Safety Officer and who perform the functions previously performed by a Westchester County deputy sheriff on or prior to such date.

3. Investigators of the Office of the State Commission of Investigation.

5. Employees of the New York City Department of Finance assigned to enforcement of the tax on cigarettes imposed by title D of chapter 46 of the administrative code of the City of New York by the Commissioner of Finance.

6. Confidential investigators and inspectors, as designated by the commissioner, of the Department of Agriculture and Markets, pursuant to rules of the department.

7. Officers or agents of a duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals. (NYC ASPCA is disbanded as of 12/31/13).

7-a. Officers or agents of a duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to children, provided that such officer or agent shall exercise the powers of a peace officer only when he is acting pursuant to his special duties. (New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children)

8. Inspectors and officers of the New York City Department of Health when acting pursuant to their special duties as set forth in section 564-11.0 of the administrative code of the City of New York.

9. Park rangers in Suffolk County, who shall be authorized to issue appearance tickets, simplified traffic information, simplified parks information and simplified environmental conservation information.

10. Broome County park rangers who shall be authorized to issue appearance tickets, simplified traffic information, simplified parks information, and simplified environmental conservation information.

11. Park rangers in Onondaga and Cayuga counties, who shall be authorized to issue appearance tickets, simplified traffic information, simplified parks information and simplified environmental conservation information, within the respective counties of Onondaga and Cayuga.

12. Special policemen designated by the commissioner and the directors of in-patient facilities in the Office of Mental Health pursuant to section 7.25 of the mental hygiene law, and special policemen designated by the commissioner and the directors of facilities under his jurisdiction in the Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities pursuant to section 13.25 of the mental hygiene law.

13. Persons designated as special policemen by the director of a hospital in the Department of Health pursuant to section four hundred fifty-five of the public health law.

15. Uniformed enforcement forces of the New York State Thruway Authority, when acting pursuant to subdivision two of section three hundred sixty-one of the public authorities law.

16. Employees of the Department of Health designated pursuant to section thirty-three hundred eighty-five of the public health law.

17. Uniformed housing guards of the Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority.

18. Bay Constable of the City of Rye, the villages of Mamaroneck, South Nyack and Bay Constables of the towns of East Hampton, Hempstead, Oyster Bay, Riverhead, Southampton, Southold, Islip, Shelter Island, Brookhaven, Babylon, Smithtown, Huntington and North Hempstead.

19. Harbor masters appointed by a county, city, town or village.

20. Bridge and tunnel officers, sergeants and lieutenants of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. (Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority)

22. Patrolmen appointed by the Lake George Park Commission.

23. Parole officers or warrant officers in the Division of Parole.

23-a. Parole Revocation Specialists in the Division of Parole.

24. Probation officers.

25. Officials, as designated by the Commissioner of the Department of Correctional Services pursuant to rules of the department, and correction officers of any state correctional facility or of any penal correctional institution.

28. All officers and members of the uniformed force of the New York City Fire Department as set forth and subject to the limitations contained in section 487a-15.0 of the administrative code of the city of New York.

29. Special policemen for horse racing, appointed pursuant to the provisions of the pari-mutuel revenue law as set forth in chapter two hundred fifty-four of the laws of nineteen hundred forty, as amended.

30. Supervising fire inspectors, fire inspectors, the fire marshal and assistant fire marshals, all of whom are full-time employees of the County of Nassau Fire Marshal's Office.

32. Investigators of the Department of Motor Vehicles, pursuant to section three hundred ninety-two-b of the vehicle and traffic law.

33. A city marshal of the City of New York who has received training in firearms handling from the Federal Bureau of Investigation or in the New York City Police Academy, or in the absence of the available training programs from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the New York City Police Academy, from another law enforcement agency located in the state of New York, and who has received a firearms permit from the Licensing Division of the New York City Police Department.

34. Waterfront and airport investigators, pursuant to subdivision four of section ninety-nine hundred six of the unconsolidated laws.

35. Special investigators appointed by the state Board of Elections, pursuant to section 3-107 of the election law.

36. Investigators appointed by the state liquor authority, pursuant to section fifteen of the alcoholic beverage control law.

37. Special patrolmen of a political subdivision, appointed pursuant to section two hundred nine-v of the general municipal law.

38. A special investigator of the New York City Department of Investigation who has received training in firearms handling in the New York City Police Academy and has received a firearms permit from the Licensing Division of the New York City Police Department.

39. Broome County special patrolman, appointed by the Broome County Attorney.

41. Fire Police squads organized pursuant to section two hundred nine-c of the general municipal law, at such times as the fire department, fire company or an emergency rescue and first aid squad of the fire department or fire company are on duty, or when, on orders of the chief of the fire department or fire company of which they are members, they are separately engaged in response to a call for assistance pursuant to the provisions of section two hundred nine of the general municipal law.

42. Special deputy sheriffs appointed by the sheriff of a county within which any part of the grounds of Cornell University or the grounds of any state institution constituting a part of the educational and research plants owned or under the supervision, administration or control of said university are located pursuant to section fifty-seven hundred nine of the education law.

43. Housing patrolmen of the Mount Vernon housing authority, acting pursuant to rules of the Mount Vernon housing authority.

44. The officers, employees and members of the New York city division of fire prevention, in the bureau of fire, as set forth and subject to the limitations contained in subdivision one of section 487a-1.0 of the administrative code of the city of New York.

45. Persons appointed and designated as peace officers by the Niagara frontier transportation authority, pursuant to subdivision thirteen of section twelve hundred ninety-nine-e of the public authorities law.

46. Persons appointed as peace officers by the Sea Gate Association pursuant to the provisions of chapter three hundred ninety-one of the laws of nineteen hundred forty.

47. Employees of the insurance frauds bureau of the state department of insurance when designated as peace officers by the superintendent of insurance and acting pursuant to their special duties.

48. New York Sate air base security guards when they are designated as peace officers under military regulations promulgated by the chief of staff to the governor and when performing their duties as air base security guards pursuant to orders issued by appropriate military authority.

49. Members of the Army National Guard military police and Air National Guard security personnel belonging to the organized militia of the State of New York when they are designated as peace officers under military regulations promulgated by the Adjutant General and when performing their duties as military policemen or air security personnel pursuant to orders issued by appropriate military authority.

50. Transportation supervisors in the City of White Plains appointed by the Commissioner of Public Safety in the City of White Plains.

51. Officers and members of the Fire Investigation Division of the Fire Department of the City of Rochester, the City of Binghamton and the City of Utica, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

52. Security hospital treatment assistants, as so designated by the commissioner of the Office of Mental Health while transporting persons convicted of a crime to court, to other facilities within the jurisdiction of the Office of Mental Health, or to any state or local correctional facility.

53. Authorized agents of the municipal directors of weights and measures in the counties of Suffolk, Nassau and Westchester when acting pursuant to their special duties as set forth in section one hundred eighty-one of the agriculture and markets law.

54. Special policemen appointed pursuant to section one hundred fifty-eight of the town law.

  • 55 expired July 1, 1993

56. Dog control officers of the Town of Brookhaven, who at the discretion of the town board may be designated as constables for the purpose of enforcing article twenty-six of the agriculture and markets law and for the purpose of issuing appearance tickets permitted under article seven of such law.

  • There are 2 sub 57-as

57-a. Seasonal park rangers of the Westchester County Department of Public Safety while employed as authorized by the commissioner of public safety/sheriff of the county of Westchester.

57-a. Officers of the Westchester county public safety emergency force, when activated by the commissioner of public safety/sheriff of the county of Westchester.

58. Uniformed members of the security force of the Troy Housing Authority.

59. Officers and members of the Sanitation Police of the Department of Sanitation of the City of New York, duly appointed and designated as peace officers by such department. Provided, further, that nothing in this subdivision shall be deemed to apply to officers and members of the sanitation police regularly and exclusively assigned to enforcement of such city's residential recycling laws. (New York City Department of Sanitation Police)

  • There are 2 sub 61s

61. Chief fire marshall, assistant chief fire marshall, fire marshall II and fire marshall I, all of whom are full-time employees of the Suffolk county department of fire, rescue and emergency services, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

61. Investigators employed by the criminal investigations bureau when assigned to such bureau by the superintendent of banks and acting pursuant to their special duties as set forth in article two-B of the banking law.

  • There are 2 sub 62s

62. Chief fire marshall, assistant chief fire marshall, fire marshall II and fire marshall I, all of whom are full-time employees of the town of Babylon, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

62. Employees of the division for youth assigned to transport and warrants units who are specifically designated by the director in accordance with section five hundred four-b of the executive law.

  • There are 2 sub 63s

63. Uniformed members of the fire marshal's office in the town of Southampton and the town of Riverhead, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

63. Employees of the town court of the town of Greenburgh serving as a security officer.

64. Cell block attendants employed by the city of Buffalo police department.

65. Chief fire marshal, assistant chief fire marshall, fire marshal II and fire marshal I, all of whom are full-time employees of the town of Brookhaven, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

66. Employees of the village court of the village of Spring Valley serving as security officers at such village court.

67. Employees of the town court of the town of Putnam Valley serving as a security officer.

  • There are 5 sub 68s

68. The state inspector general and investigators designated by the state inspector general.

68. Dog control officers of the town of Arcadia, who at the discretion of the town board may be designated as constables for the purpose of enforcing article twenty-six of the agriculture and markets law and for the purpose of issuing appearance tickets permitted under article seven of such law.

68. Employees appointed by the Sheriff of Livingston County, when acting pursuant to their special duties serving as uniformed marine patrol officers.

68. Employees of the town court of the Town of Southampton serving as uniformed court officers at such town court.

68. Persons employed by the Chautauqua County Sheriff's Office serving as court security officers.

69. Employees of the village court of the Village of Amityville serving as uniformed court officers at such village court.

70. Employees appointed by the Sheriff of Yates County, pursuant to their special duties serving as uniformed marine patrol officers.

71. Town of Smithtown fire marshals when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

72. Persons employed by Canisius College as members of the security force of such college.

73. Employees of the town court of the Town of Newburgh serving as uniformed court officers at such town court.

  • There are 4 sub 74s

74. Parks and Recreation forest rangers employed by the Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation.

74. Employees of the village court of the village of Quogue, town of Southampton serving as uniformed court officers at such village court.

74. Employees of the town court of the town of East Hampton serving as uniformed court officers at such town court.

  • There are 3 sub 75s

75. Dog control officers of the town of Clarence, who at the discretion of the town board may be designated as constables for the purpose of enforcing article twenty-six of the agriculture and markets law and for the purpose of issuing appearance tickets permitted under article seven of the agriculture and markets law.

75. Airport security guards, senior airport security guards, airport security supervisors, retired police officers, and supervisors of same, who are designated by resolution of the town board of the town of Islip to provide security at Long Island MacArthur Airport when acting pursuant to their duties as such, and such authority being specifically limited to the grounds of the said airport.

75. Officers and members of the Fire Investigation Unit of the Fire Department of the City of Buffalo when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

  • There are 2 sub 76s

76. Employees of the village court of the village of Southampton, town of Southampton serving as uniformed court officers at such village court.

76. Animal control officers employed by the city of Peekskill.

  • There are 2 sub 77s

77. Chief fire marshal, assistant chief fire marshal, and fire marshals, all of whom are full-time employees of the town of East Hampton, when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, the extinguishment thereof and fire perils.

78. A security officer employed by a community college who is specifically designated as a peace officer by the board of trustees of a community college pursuant to subdivision five-a of section sixty-three hundred six of the education law, or by a community college regional board of trustees pursuant to subdivision four-a of section sixty-three hundred ten of the education law.

  • There are 4 sub 79s

79. Court security officers employed by the Wayne county sheriff's office.

79. Supervisors and members of the arson investigation bureau and fire inspection bureau of the department of state's office of fire prevention and control when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to fires, their prevention, extinguishment, investigation thereof, and fire perils.

79. Peace officers appointed by the city university of New York pursuant to subdivision sixteen of section sixty-two hundred six of the education law, who shall have the powers set forth in section 2.20 of this article whether or not they are acting pursuant to their special duties. (City University of New York Public Safety Department)

79. Animal control officers of the city of Elmira, who at the discretion of the city council of the city of Elmira may be designated as constables for the purpose of enforcing article twenty-six of the agriculture and markets law, and for the purpose of issuing appearance tickets permitted under article seven of such law.

80. Employees of the Onondaga County Sheriff's Department serving as uniformed court security officers at Onondaga County court facilities.

  • There are 6 sub 81s

81. Members of the Hospital Police Department employed by the Erie County Medical Center.

81. Employees of the town of Riverhead serving as court officers at town of Riverhead court facilities.

81. Employees of the town court of the town of Southold serving as uniformed court officers at such town court.

81. Commissioners of and court officers in the department of public safety for the town of Rye when acting pursuant to their special duties in matters arising under the laws relating to maintaining the safety and security of citizens, judges and court personnel in the town court, and effecting the safe and secure transport of persons under the custody of said department.

81. Employees of the town of Yorktown serving as court attendants at town of Yorktown court facilities.

81. Employees of the Lewis county sheriff's department serving as uniformed court security officers at Lewis county court facilities.

82. Employees of the New York city business integrity commission designated as peace officers by the chairperson of such commission

Federal law enforcement officers[edit]

The federal law enforcement officers listed below have the following powers:

  • the power to make warrantless arrests pursuant to section 140.25
  • the power to use physical force and deadly physical force in making an arrest or preventing an escape pursuant to section 35.30 of the penal law.
  • the power to carry out warrantless searches whenever such searches are constitutionally permissible and acting pursuant to their special duties.
  • the power to possess and take custody of firearms not owned by the peace officer, for the purpose of disposing, guarding, or any other lawful purpose, consistent with their duties as a peace officer.

But most of them cannot make arrests:

  • if acting pursuant to his special duties, for a crime when he has reasonable cause to believe that such person has committed such crime, whether in his presence or otherwise
  • if they are not acting pursuant to their duties within their geographical area of employment, for a felony when they have reasonable cause to believe that such person has committed such felony, whether in their presence or otherwise.

Exceptions apply, marked below in bold.

1. Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents.

2. United States Secret Service special agents.

3. Immigration and Naturalization Service immigration inspectors, special agents, patrol officers and deportation officers.

4. United States Marshals and Marshals Service deputies.

5. Drug Enforcement Administration special agents.

6. Federal Protective Officers.

7. United States Customs Service special agents, inspectors and patrol officers.

8. United States Postal Service police officers and inspectors.

10. United States probation officers.

11. United States General Services Administration special agents.

12. United States Department of Agriculture special agents.

13. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms special agents.

14. Internal Revenue Service special agents and inspectors.

15. Officers of the United States Bureau of Prisons.

16. United States Fish and Wildlife special agents.

17. United States Naval Investigative Service special agents.

18. United States Department of State special agents.

19. Special agents of the Defense Criminal Investigative Service of the United States Department of Defense.

20. United States Department of Commerce, Office of Export Enforcement special agents.

21. United States Department of Veterans Administration police officers employed at the Veterans Administration Medical Center . (United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police)

22. Federal Reserve law enforcement officers.

23. Federal Air Marshal program special agents.

  • NB There are 2 sb 24s

24. United States Coast Guard Investigative Service special agents.

25. United States Department of Commerce, special agents and enforcement officers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement.

26. Department of the Army special agents, detectives and police officers.

27. United States Department of Interior park rangers with law enforcement authority.

Watershed protection and enforcement officers; powers, duties, jurisdiction for arrests[edit]

Watershed protection and enforcement officers appointed by the city of Peekskill shall have the powers set forth in paragraphs a, b, c, f, g and h listed below, and complete standard peace officer training.

The city of Peekskill may appoint the following persons as watershed protection and enforcement officers:

  • the water superintendent,
  • the deputy assistant to the water superintendent, and
  • the watershed inspector or inspectors.

The duties of the watershed protection and enforcement officers shall be to enforce those provisions of the environmental conservation law and the penal law which relate to the contamination of water in those areas of the Hollow Brook watershed located within the city of Peekskill, including its reservoirs, shoreline, and tributaries, and those areas of the Hollow Brook watershed and Wiccopee reservoir located outside of the city of Peekskill in the counties of Putnam and Westchester, including its reservoirs, shoreline, and tributaries.

Watershed protection and enforcement officers are authorized to make arrests and issue appearance tickets in those areas of the Hollow Brook watershed and Wiccopee reservoir located outside of the city of Peekskill in the counties of Putnam and Westchester, including along its reservoirs, shoreline, and tributaries.

Powers of peace officers[edit]

Peace officers have the following powers:

(a) The power to make warrantless arrests pursuant to section 140.25 of the Criminal Procedure Law.

(b) The power to use physical force and deadly physical force in making an arrest or preventing an escape pursuant to section 35.30 of the Penal Law.

(c) The power to carry out warrantless searches whenever such searches are constitutionally permissible and acting pursuant to their special duties.

(d) The power to issue appearance tickets pursuant to subdivision 3 of section 150.20 of the Criminal Procedure Law, when acting pursuant to their special duties. New York city special patrolmen shall have the power to issue an appearance ticket only when it is pursuant to rules and regulations of the police commissioner of the city of New York.

(e) The power to issue uniform appearance tickets pursuant to article 27 of the Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation Law and to issue simplified traffic information pursuant to section 100.25 of this chapter and section 207 of the Vehicle and Traffic Law whenever acting pursuant to their special duties.

(f) The power to issue a uniform navigation summons and/or complaint pursuant to section 19 of the Navigation Law whenever acting pursuant to their special duties.

(g) The power to issue uniform appearance tickets pursuant to article 71 of the Environmental Conservation Law, whenever acting pursuant to their special duties.

(h) The power to possess and take custody of firearms not owned by the peace officer, for the purpose of disposing, guarding, or any other lawful purpose, consistent with his duties as a peace officer.

(i) Any other power which a particular peace officer is otherwise authorized to exercise by any general, special or local law or charter whenever acting pursuant to his special duties, provided such power is not inconsistent with the provisions of the Penal Law or the Criminal Procedure Law.

(j) Uniformed court officers shall have the power to issue traffic summonses and complaints for parking, standing, or stopping violations pursuant to the Vehicle and Traffic Law whenever acting pursuant to their special duties.

For the purposes of this section a peace officer acts pursuant to his special duties when he performs the duties of his office, pursuant to the specialized nature of his particular employment, whereby he is required or authorized to enforce any general, special or local law or charter, rule, regulation, judgment or order.

A peace officer, whether or not acting pursuant to his special duties, who lawfully exercises any of the powers conferred upon him pursuant to this section, shall be deemed to be acting within the scope of his public employment for purposes of defense and indemnification rights and benefits that he may be otherwise entitled to under the provisions of section 50K of the General Municipal Law, sections 17 or 18 of the Public Officers Law, or any other applicable section of law.

Firearms[edit]

Most police officers in New York are armed and allowed to carry a firearm both on and off duty through their employment. However, some police agencies do not allow their police officers to carry through their employment; they may not carry a firearm on duty and must apply for a permit if they wish to use a firearm off-duty. One such agency is the New York State Bridge Authority Police whose officers are not armed, due to Bridge Authority policy.

Some peace officers in New York are armed and allowed to carry a firearm both on and off duty through their employment, however many peace officers are not allowed to carry a firearm through their employment, meaning they can't carry a firearm on duty or off duty, and if they want a firearm for off duty use, they must apply for a permit in order to carry or buy one. Each agency decides whether their officers will be allowed to carry a firearm through their employment or not. Some agencies that do allow their peace officers to carry a firearm through their employment include the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, New York City Department of Correction, and the New York State Court System. Some agencies that do not allow their officers to carry a firearm through their employment include the Roosevelt Island Public Safety Department, New York City Department of Health and Hospitals Police, New York City Department of Homeless Services Police, and the New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol. Agencies can also allow their peace officers to carry a firearm through their employment on duty only, and can not carry a department issued firearm off duty. In this case, the officer can carry the firearm while on duty only, however when they go off duty, they must either give the firearm to a supervisor, fellow officer who is on duty, or lock it up in a locker at the department.

Equipment[edit]

The equipment carried by police officers and peace officers are practically the same with possible minor differences between departments. Most officers carry a baton, can of pepper spray, pair of handcuffs, a whistle, a flashlight, and a portable radio. Officers who are armed on duty also carry their firearm. However, some differences can include the brand and strength of pepper spray, type and brand of baton, type and brand of handcuffs, and for armed officers, type and brand of firearm and ammo. In addition, certain agencies allow their officers to carry other equipment, such as tasers. However, different agencies can also allow/ban certain equipment carried by officers. For example, NYPD Auxiliary Police officers are only equipped with a baton, handcuffs, flashlight, and whistle, while NYPD School Safety Agents only carry handcuffs, a flashlight, and a whistle.

Uniform[edit]

Uniforms worn by police officers and peace officers differ from agency to agency. Most police and peace officers wear a uniform that has a dark blue shirt and dark blue pants with black boots or shoes. Another popular uniform worn by officers has a light blue shirt with dark blue pants with black boots or shoes. However, there are other colors and types of uniforms worn by officers, including grey, green, and black shirts and grey, green, and black pants. Also, most officers wear a hat when on duty. The hats worn by officers differ in shape, size, type, brand, and color, ranging from a traditional eight-point cap to stetsons to a baseball style cap. In addition, officers in certain specialized units in departments may wear a different style uniform compared to the uniform worn by patrol officers. For example, NYPD Highway Patrol officers wear a uniform that consists of tapered motorcycle breeches with a uniform-width blue stripe, as well as a "crushed"-style version of the NYPD's eight-point cap or a two-toned motorcycle helmet, compared to the dark blue shirt, dark blue pants with black boots or shoes uniform worn by patrol officers. A major piece of the police uniform is the badge, which is usually worn on the left or right chest of the shirt or jacket. The shape and color of badges differ between rank and department. For example, NYPD police officers wear a shield shaped badge in silver, and other rank officers have different shape and color badges. Sergeants and above have gold badges with each rank having a different shape badge, and detectives wear an almost round badge.

Training[edit]

The amount and type of training given to police officers and peace officers differs between agencies. The requirement of training for police officers is a minimum of 635 hours, the requirement for full-time peace officers is a minimum of 35 hours of training, and the requirement for part-time peace officers is a minimum of 10 hours of training.[1][2] However, each agency can give their officers as much training as they want as long as it meets the minimum requirement. For example, New York State Police troopers go through more than 700 hours of training, exceeding the minimum requirement of 635 hours of training for police officers, NYPD Auxiliary Police officers go through 54 hours of training, exceeding the minimum requirement of 10 hours of training for part-time peace officers, and Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Bridge and Tunnel officers go through more than 500 hours of training, exceeding the minimum requirement of 100 hours of training for full-time peace officers. All training courses for police and peace officers include training in criminal law, police science, powers they have, what they can and can't do, some physical training, arrest procedures, how to properly make arrests, and how to properly use their equipment. Officers who are armed must be trained with their firearm before they can carry it, and must re qualify yearly. Agencies may also give their officers additional types of training such as homeland security training, emergency vehicle operation training, pursuit training, radar training, accident investigation training, and more.

References[edit]

External links[edit]