List of kings of Tyre

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The traditional king-list of Tyre, the ancient Phoenician city in what is now Lebanon, is derived from Josephus, Against Apion i. 18, 21, and his Antiquities of the Jews viii. 5.3; 13.2. His list was based on a lost history by Menander of Ephesus, who had drawn his information, Josephus asserts, from the chronicles of Tyre itself.[1]

Ancient Tyrian rulers based on Hellenic mythology[edit]

Agenor c. 1500 BC Son of Poseidon or of Belus
Phoenix He is the alleged eponym of the Phoenicians.
Eri-Aku (Herakles)[citation needed] c. 1400 BC Eri Aku may be the model for such figures as the Greek Heracles, the Biblical Arioch king of Ellaser, and the Homeric Erichthonius[disambiguation needed] King of Troy and Pontus.

Late Bronze Age rulers[edit]

Abi-Milku c. 1350–1335 BC Mayor/Ruler of Tyre during the period of the Amarna letters correspondence (1350–1335 BC)
Aribas fl. c. 1230
Baal-Termeg (or Baalat-Remeg) fl. c. 1220
Baal c. 1193
Pummay c.1163-1125[2]

Kings of the Sidonians (with Tyre as capital), 990–785 BC[edit]

The dates for the reconstruction of the Tyrian king list from Hiram I through Pygmalion are established in three places by three independent sources: a Biblical synchronism (Hiram's assistance to Solomon in building the Temple, from 967 BC onwards), an Assyrian record (tribute of Baal-Eser II/Balazeros II to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC), and a Roman historian (Pompeius Trogus, who placed the founding of Carthage or Dido's flight from her brother Pygmalion in the latter's seventh year of reign, in 825 BC, 72 years before the founding of Rome).[3]

Abibaal 993–981 BC His beginning date is conjectural.
Hiram I 980 – 947 BC Contemporary of David and Solomon
Baal-Eser I
(Balazeros I,
Ba‘l-mazzer I)
946-930 BC
Abdastartus
(‘Abd-‘Astart)
929-921 BC
Astartus
(‘Ashtart)
920-901 BC Killed predecessor. First of 4 brothers to reign.
Deleastartus
(Dalay-‘Ashtart)
900-889 BC
Astarymus
(‘Ashtar-rom)
888-880 BC
Phelles
(Pilles)
879 BC Last of the 4 brothers
Ithobaal I
(Ethbaal I)
878-847 BC Killed predecessor. Father of Biblical Jezebel.
Baal-Eser II
(Balazeros II,
Ba‘l-mazzer II)
846-841 BC Paid tribute to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC
Mattan I 840-832 BC Father of Pygmalion and Dido
Pygmalion
(Pummay)
831-785 BC Dido fled from Pygmalion and founded Carthage during his reign.

Assyrian ascendancy: 8th and 7th centuries BC[edit]

The Neo-Assyrian Empire established its control over the area and ruled through vassals who are named in Assyrian records.

Ithobaal II
(Tuba‘il)
750–739 BC Name found only on Iran Stele of Tiglath-Pileser III.[4]
Gave tribute to T-P III.
Hiram II 739–730 BC Also gave tribute to T-P III[5]
Mattan II 730–729 BC
Elulaios
(Luli)
729–694 BC
Abd Melqart 694–680 BC
Baal I 680–660 BC

Post-Assyrian period[edit]

Tyre regained independence with Assyria's demise, although Egypt controlled Tyre some of the time.

missing -592 BC
Ithobaal III
(Ethbaal II)
591–573 BC This is the king mentioned in Ezekiel 28:2 at the time of the fall of Jerusalem.[6] Carthage became independent of Tyre in 574 BC.

Under control of Babylon 573–539 BC[edit]

Baal II 573–564 BC
Yakinbaal 564 BC

Shoftim of Tyre[edit]

In the 560s the monarchy was overthrown and an oligarchic government established, headed by "judges" or shoftim (cf. Carthage). The monarchy was restored with the ascension of Hiram III to the throne.

Chelbes 564–563 BC
Abbar 563–562 BC
Mattan III and
Ger Ashthari
562–556 BC
Baal-Eser III 556–555 BC
Hiram III 551–532 BC

Under Persian control 539–411 BC[edit]

Under control of Cypriot Salamis 411–374 BC[edit]

Under Persian control 374–332 BC[edit]

Under the Greeks and Romans[edit]

After Alexander the Great conquered Tyre in 332 BC, the city alternated between Seleucid (Syrian Greek) and Ptolemaic (Egyptian Greek) rule. Phoenicia came under the rule of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.

Middle Ages and later[edit]

Tyre was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century. The Crusaders conquered Tyre, which acted as the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem until this kingdom's fall in 1291. Tyre then became part of adjoining empires again (Ottoman Empire, Mamelukes), and finally of France and of independent Lebanon in the 20th century.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: "Phenicia".
  2. ^ a b "Lebanon". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  3. ^ William H. Barnes, Studies in the Chronology of the Divided Monarchy of Israel (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991), p. 31.
  4. ^ Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 266.
  5. ^ Tadmor, Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, 69.
  6. ^ NIV Archaeological Study Bible, An Illustrated walk through Biblical History and Culture. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005 p.1350.