List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (Q)

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The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry.[1] A total of 7,323 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945.[Note 1] This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD) and the Volkssturm. There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of the Third Reich.[3]

The 7,323 recipients are listed in the 1986 edition of Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's book, Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller WehrmachtsteileThe Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War. In 1996 a second edition of this book was published with an addendum delisting 11 of these original 7,323 recipients. Author and historian Veit Scherzer has cast doubt on a further 193 of these listings. The majority of the disputed recipients had received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process.[4] Listed here are the seven Knight's Cross recipients whose last name starts with "Q".[5] The recipients are ordered alphabetically by last name. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.

Background[edit]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grades were based on four separate enactments. The first enactment, Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573 of 1 September 1939 instituted the Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz), the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). Article 2 of the enactment mandated that the award of a higher class be preceded by the award of all preceding classes.[6] As the war progressed, some of the recipients of the Knight's Cross distinguished themselves further and a higher grade, the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, was instituted. The Oak Leaves, as they were commonly referred to, were based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 849 of 3 June 1940.[7] In 1941, two higher grades of the Knight's Cross were instituted. The enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 613 of 28 September 1941 introduced the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).[8] At the end of 1944 the final grade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11 of 29 December 1944, became the final variant of the Knight's Cross authorized.[9]

Recipients[edit]

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Supreme Command of the Armed Forces) kept separate Knight's Cross lists for the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air force) and Waffen-SS. Within each of these lists a unique sequential number was assigned to each recipient. The same numbering paradigm was applied to the higher grades of the Knight's Cross, one list per grade.[10] Of the seven awards made to servicemen whose last name starts with "Q", two presentations were made posthumously. Two of the medals went to the Heer, and five to the Luftwaffe.[5]

      This along with the * (asterisk), indicates that the Knight's Cross was awarded posthumously.

Name Service Rank Role and unit[Note 2] Date of award Notes Image
Quaet-Faslem, KlausKlaus Quaet-Faslem Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[11] Gruppenkommandeur of I./Jagdgeschwader 3 "Udet"[5][11] 9 June 1944*[11] Killed in flying accident 30 January 1944[5]
Quassowski, JoachimJoachim Quassowski Heer 14-HHauptmann[11] Commander of II./Grenadier-Regiment 484[5][11] 18 October 1943[11]
Quast, WernerWerner Quast Luftwaffe 10-LFahnenjunker-Oberfeldwebel[Note 3] Pilot in the 4./Jagdgeschwader 52[5][Note 3] 31 December 1943[11]
Quednau, HorstHorst Quednau Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[11] Pilot in the III./Kampfgeschwader 27 "Boelcke"[5][11] 3 September 1942[11]
Quednow, FritzFritz Quednow Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[11] Company chief in the Fallschirm-Panzer-Regiment "Hermann Göring" of the Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1 "Hermann Göring"[5][Note 4] 5 April 1944*[11] Killed in action 27 April 1944[5]
Quentin, FriedrichFriedrich Quentin Heer 15-HMajor[11] Commander of Kradschützen Bataillon 6[5][11] 8 February 1943[11]
Quest, EwaldEwald Quest Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant of the Reserves[Note 5] Chief of the 1./Flak-Regiment 33 (motorized)[5][12] 4 May 1944[12]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Großadmiral and President of Germany Karl Dönitz, Hitler's successor as Head of State (Staatsoberhaupt) and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, had ordered the cessation of all promotions and awards as of 11 May 1945 (Dönitz-decree). Consequently the last Knight's Cross awarded to Oberleutnant zur See of the Reserves Georg-Wolfgang Feller on 17 June 1945 must therefore be considered a de facto but not de jure hand-out.[2]
  2. ^ For an explanation of the various naming schemes used by the Luftwaffe, Heer, Kriegsmarine and Waffen-SS refer to nomenclature used by the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS.
  3. ^ a b According to Scherzer as Oberfeldwebel and pilot in the II./Jagdgeschwader 52.[11]
  4. ^ According to Scherzer as chief of the 5./Fallschirm-Panzer-Regiment "Hermann Göring".[11]
  5. ^ According to Scherzer as Oberleutnant.[12]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Williamson and Bujeiro 2004, pp. 3–4.
  2. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 4.
  3. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 113–460, 483, 485–487, 492, 494, 498–499, 501, 503, 509.
  4. ^ Scherzer 2007, pp. 117–186.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fellgiebel 2000, p. 347.
  6. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 1573; 1 September 1939" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  7. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 849; 3 June 1940" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  8. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 613; 28 September 1941" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11; 29 December 1944" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  10. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 112.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Scherzer 2007, p. 608.
  12. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 609.
Bibliography
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Williamson, Gordon and Bujeiro, Ramiro (2004). Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves Recipients 1939-40. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-641-0.
Further reading
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Fraschka, Günther (1994). Knights of the Reich. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 978-0-88740-580-8. 

External links[edit]