List of RNA structure prediction software

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This list of RNA structure prediction software is a compilation of software tools and web portals used for RNA structure prediction.

Single sequence secondary structure prediction[edit]

Name Description Knots
[Note 1]
Links References
CentroidFold Secondary structure prediction based on generalized centroid estimator no sourcecode webserver [1]
CentroidHomfold Secondary structure prediction by using homologous sequence information no sourcecode webserver [2]
Context Fold An RNA secondary structure prediction software based on feature-rich trained scoring models. no sourcecode webserver [3]
CONTRAfold Secondary structure prediction method based on conditional log-linear models (CLLMs), a flexible class of probabilistic models which generalize upon SCFGs by using discriminative training and feature-rich scoring. no sourcecode webserver [4]
CyloFold Secondary structure prediction method based on placement of helices allowing complex pseudoknots. yes webserver [5]
IPknot Fast and accurate prediction of RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots using integer programming. yes sourcecode webserver [6]
KineFold Folding kinetics of RNA sequences including pseudoknots by including an implementation of the partition function for knots. yes linuxbinary, webserver [7][8]
Mfold MFE (Minimum Free Energy) RNA structure prediction algorithm. no sourcecode, webserver [9]
Pknots A dynamic programming algorithm for optimal RNA pseudoknot prediction using the nearest neighbour energy model. yes sourcecode [10]
PknotsRG A dynamic programming algorithm for the prediction of a restricted class (H-type) of RNA pseudoknots. yes sourcecode, webserver [11]
pKiss A dynamic programming algorithm for the prediction of a restricted class (H-type and kissing hairpins) of RNA pseudoknots. yes sourcecode, webserver [12]
RNA123 Secondary structure prediction via thermodynamic-based folding algorithms and novel structure-based sequence alignment specific for RNA. yes webserver
RNAfold MFE RNA structure prediction algorithm. Includes an implementation of the partition function for computing basepair probabilities and circular RNA folding. no sourcecode, webserver

[9][13][14][15][16]

RNAshapes MFE RNA structure prediction based on abstract shapes. Shape abstraction retains adjacency and nesting of structural features, but disregards helix lengths, thus reduces the number of suboptimal solutions without losing significant information. Furthermore, shapes represent classes of structures for which probabilities based on Boltzmann-weighted energies can be computed. no source & binaries, webserver [17][18]
RNAstructure A program to predict lowest free energy structures and base pair probabilities for RNA or DNA sequences. Programs are also available to predict Maximum Expected Accuracy structures and these can include pseudoknots. Structure prediction can be constrained using experimental data, including SHAPE, enzymatic cleavage, and chemical modification accessibility. Graphical user interfaces are available for Windows and for Mac OS-X/Linux. Programs are also available for use with Unix-style text interfaces. Additionally, a C++ class library is available. yes source & binaries, webserver

[19][20]

Sfold Statistical sampling of all possible structures. The sampling is weighted by partition function probabilities. no webserver [21][22][23][24]
UNAFold The UNAFold software package is an integrated collection of programs that simulate folding, hybridization, and melting pathways for one or two single-stranded nucleic acid sequences. no sourcecode [25]
Crumple Crumple is simple, cleanly written software for producing the full set of possible secondary structures for a single sequence, given optional constraints. no sourcecode [26]
Sliding Windows & Assembly Sliding windows and assembly is a tool chain for folding long series of similar hairpins. no sourcecode [26]
Notes
  1. ^ Knots: Pseudoknot prediction, <yes|no>.

Single sequence tertiary structure prediction[edit]

Name Description Knots
[Note 1]
Links References
BARNACLE A Python library for the probabilistic sampling of RNA structures that are compatible with a given nucleotide sequence and that are RNA-like on a local length scale. yes sourcecode [27]
FARNA Automated de novo prediction of native-like RNA tertiary structures . yes sourcecode [28]
iFoldRNA three-dimensional RNA structure prediction and folding yes webserver [29]
MC-Fold MC-Sym Pipeline Thermodynamics and Nucleotide cyclic motifs for RNA structure prediction algorithm. 2D and 3D structures. yes sourcecode, webserver [30]
NAST Coarse-grained modeling of large RNA molecules with knowledge-based potentials and structural filters  ? executables [31]
MMB Turning limited experimental information into 3D models of RNA  ? sourcecode [32]
RNA123 An integrated platform for de novo and homology modeling of RNA 3D structures, where coordinate file input, sequence editing, sequence alignment, structure prediction and analysis features are all accessed from a single intuitive graphical user interface. yes webserver
RNAComposer Fully automated prediction of large RNA 3D structures. yes webserver webserver [33]
Notes
  1. ^ Knots: Pseudoknot prediction, <yes|no>.

Comparative methods[edit]

The single sequence methods mentioned above have a difficult job detecting a small sample of reasonable secondary structures from a large space of possible structures. A good way to reduce the size of the space is to use evolutionary approaches. Structures that have been conserved by evolution are far more likely to be the functional form. The methods below use this approach.

Name Description Number of sequences
[Note 1]
Alignment
[Note 2]
Structure
[Note 3]
Knots
[Note 4]
Link References
Carnac Comparative analysis combined with MFE folding. any no yes no sourcecode, webserver [34][35]
CentroidAlifold Common secondary structure prediction based on generalized centroid estimator any no yes no sourcecode webserver [36]
CentroidAlign Fast and accurate multiple aligner for RNA sequences any yes no no sourcecode [37]
CMfinder an expectation maximization algorithm using covariance models for motif description. Uses heuristics for effective motif search, and a Bayesian framework for structure prediction combining folding energy and sequence covariation. 3\le seqs \le60 yes yes no sourcecode, webserver, website [38]
CONSAN implements a pinned Sankoff algorithm for simultaneous pairwise RNA alignment and consensus structure prediction. 2 yes yes no sourcecode [39]
DAFS Simultaneous aligning and folding of RNA sequences via dual decomposition. any yes yes yes sourcecode [40]
Dynalign an algorithm that improves the accuracy of structure prediction by combining free energy minimization and comparative sequence analysis to find a low free energy structure common to two sequences without requiring any sequence identity. 2 yes yes no sourcecode [41][42][43]
FoldalignM A multiple RNA structural RNA alignment method, to a large extend based on the PMcomp program. any yes yes no sourcecode [44]
FRUUT A pairwise RNA structural alignment tool based on the comparison of RNA trees. Considers alignments in which the compared trees can be rooted differently (with respect to the standard “external loop” corresponding roots), and/or permuted with respect to branching order. any yes input no sourcecode, webserver [45][46]
GraphClust Fast RNA structural clustering method of local RNA secondary structures. Predicted clusters are refined using LocARNA and CMsearch. Due to the linear time complexity for clustering it is possible to analyse large RNA datasets. any yes yes no sourcecode [47]
KNetFold Computes a consensus RNA secondary structure from an RNA sequence alignment based on machine learning. any input yes yes linuxbinary, webserver [48]
LARA Produce a global fold and alignment of ncRNA families using integer linear programming and Lagrangian relaxation. any yes yes no sourcecode [49]
LocaRNA LocaRNA is the successor of PMcomp with an improved time complexity. It is a variant of Sankoff's algorithm for simultaneous folding and alignment, which takes as input pre-computed base pair probability matrices from McCaskill's algorithm as produced by RNAfold -p. Thus the method can also be viewed as way to compare base pair probability matrices. any yes yes no sourcecode, webserver [50]
MASTR A sampling approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo in a simulated annealing framework, where both structure and alignment is optimized by making small local changes. The score combines the log-likelihood of the alignment, a covariation term and the basepair probabilities. any yes yes no sourcecode [51][52]
Multilign This method uses multiple Dynalign calculations to find a low free energy structure common to any number of sequences. It does not require any sequence identity. any yes yes no sourcecode [53]
Murlet a multiple alignment tool for RNA sequences using iterative alignment based on Sankoff's algorithm with sharply reduced computational time and memory. any yes yes no webserver [54]
MXSCARNA a multiple alignment tool for RNA sequences using progressive alignment based on pairwise structural alignment algorithm of SCARNA. any yes yes no webserver sourcecode [55]
pAliKiss pAliKiss predicts RNA secondary structures for fixed RNA multiple sequence alignments, with special attention for pseudoknotted structures. This program is an offspring of the hybridization of RNAalishapes and pKiss. any input yes yes webserver sourcecode [12]
PARTS A method for joint prediction of alignment and common secondary structures of two RNA sequences using a probabilistic model based on pseudo free energies obtained from precomputed base pairing and alignment probabilities. 2 yes yes no sourcecode [56]
Pfold Folds alignments using a SCFG trained on rRNA alignments. \le40 input yes no webserver [57][58]
PETfold Formally integrates both the energy-based and evolution-based approaches in one model to predict the folding of multiple aligned RNA sequences by a maximum expected accuracy scoring. The structural probabilities are calculated by RNAfold and Pfold. any input yes no sourcecode [59]
PhyloQFold Method that takes advantage of the evolutionary history of a group of aligned RNA sequences for sampling consensus secondary structures, including pseudoknots, according to their approximate posterior probability. any input yes yes sourcecode [60]
PMcomp/PMmulti PMcomp is a variant of Sankoff's algorithm for simultaneous folding and alignment, which takes as input pre-computed base pair probability matrices from McCaskill's algorithm as produced by RNAfold -p. Thus the method can also be viewed as way to compare base pair probability matrices. PMmulti is a wrapper program that does progressive multiple alignments by repeatedly calling pmcomp 2\le seqs \le6 yes yes no sourcecode, webserver [61]
RNAG A Gibbs sampling method to determine a conserved structure and the structural alignment. any yes yes no sourcecode [62]
R-COFFEE uses RNAlpfold to compute the secondary structure of the provided sequences. A modified version of T-Coffee is then used to compute the multiple sequence alignment having the best agreement with the sequences and the structures. R-Coffee can be combined with any existing sequence alignment method. any yes yes no sourcecode, webserver [63][64]
TurboFold This algorithm predicts conserved structures in any number of sequences. It uses probabilistic alignment and partition functions to map conserved pairs between sequences, and then iterates the partition functions to improve structure prediction accuracy any no yes yes sourcecode [65][66]
RNA123 The structure based sequence alignment (SBSA) algorithm within RNA123 utilizes a novel suboptimal version of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment method that fully accounts for secondary structure in the template and query. It also utilizes two separate substitution matrices that are optimized for RNA helices and single stranded regions. The SBSA algorithm provides >90% accurate sequence alignments even for structures as large as bacterial 23S rRNA (~2800 nts). any yes yes yes webserver
RNAalifold Folds precomputed alignments using a combination of free-energy and a covariation measures. Ships with the Vienna package. any input yes no homepage [13][67]
RNAalishapes A tool for secondary structure prediction for precomputed alignments using a combination of free-energy and a covariation measures. Output can be sifted by the abstract shapes concept to focus on major difference in sub-optimal results. any input yes no sourcecode, webserver [68]
RNAcast enumerates the near-optimal abstract shape space, and predicts as the consensus an abstract shape common to all sequences, and for each sequence, the thermodynamically best structure which has this abstract shape. any no yes no sourcecode, webserver [69]
RNAforester Compare and align RNA secondary structures via a "forest alignment" approach. any yes input no sourcecode, webserver [70][71]
RNAmine Frequent stem pattern miner from unaligned RNA sequences is a software tool to extract the structural motifs from a set of RNA sequences. any no yes no webserver [72]
RNASampler A probabilistic sampling approach that combines intrasequence base pairing probabilities with intersequence base alignment probabilities. This is used to sample possible stems for each sequence and compare these stems between all pairs of sequences to predict a consensus structure for two sequences. The method is extended to predict the common structure conserved among multiple sequences by using a consistency-based score that incorporates information from all the pairwise structural alignments. any yes yes yes sourcecode [73]
SCARNA Stem Candidate Aligner for RNA (Scarna) is a fast, convenient tool for structural alignment of a pair of RNA sequences. It aligns two RNA sequences and calculates the similarities of them, based on the estimated common secondary structures. It works even for pseudoknotted secondary structures. 2 yes yes no webserver [74]
SimulFold simultaneously inferring RNA structures including pseudoknots, alignments, and trees using a Bayesian MCMC framework. any yes yes yes sourcecode [75]
Stemloc a program for pairwise RNA structural alignment based on probabilistic models of RNA structure known as Pair stochastic context-free grammars. any yes yes no sourcecode [76]
StrAl an alignment tool designed to provide multiple alignments of non-coding RNAs following a fast progressive strategy. It combines the thermodynamic base pairing information derived from RNAfold calculations in the form of base pairing probability vectors with the information of the primary sequence. \le50 yes no no sourcecode, webserver [77]
TFold A tool for predicting non-coding RNA secondary structures including pseudoknots. It takes in input an alignment of RNA sequences and returns the predicted secondary structure(s).It combines criteria of stability, conservation and covariation in order to search for stems and pseudoknots. Users can change different parameters values, set (or not) some known stems (if there are) which are taken into account by the system, choose to get several possible structures or only one, search for pseudoknots or not, etc. any yes yes yes webserver [78]
WAR a webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. 2\le seqs \le50 yes yes no webserver [79]
Xrate a program for analysis of multiple sequence alignments using phylogenetic grammars, that may be viewed as a flexible generalization of the "Pfold" program. any yes yes no sourcecode [80]
Notes
  1. ^ Number of sequences: <any|num>.
  2. ^ Alignment: predicts an alignment, <input|yes|no>.
  3. ^ Structure: predicts structure, <input|yes|no>.
  4. ^ Knots: Pseudoknot prediction, <yes|no>.

Inter molecular interactions: RNA-RNA[edit]

Many ncRNAs function by binding to other RNAs. For example, miRNAs regulate protein coding gene expression by binding to 3' UTRs, small nucleolar RNAs guide post-transcriptional modifications by binding to rRNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA and U6 spliceosomal RNA bind to each other forming part of the spliceosome and many small bacterial RNAs regulate gene expression by antisense interactions E.g. GcvB, OxyS and RyhB.

Name Description Intra-molecular structure Comparative Link References
GUUGle A utility for fast determination of RNA-RNA matches with perfect hybridization via A-U, C-G, and G-U base pairing. no no webserver [81]
IntaRNA Efficient target prediction incorporating the accessibility of target sites. yes no sourcecode webserver [82][83][84][85]
CopraRNA CopraRNA is a tool for sRNA target prediction. It computes whole genome predictions by combination of distinct whole genome IntaRNA predictions. yes yes sourcecode webserver [86][82]
NUPACK Computes the full unpseudoknotted partition function of interacting strands in dilute solution. Calculates the concentrations, mfes, and base-pairing probabilities of the ordered complexes below a certain complexity. Also computes the partition function and basepairing of single strands including a class of pseudoknotted structures. Also enables design of ordered complexes. yes no NUPACK [87]
OligoWalk/RNAstructure Predicts bimolecular secondary structures with and without intramolecular structure. Also predicts the hybridization affinity of a short nucleic acid to an RNA target. yes no [1] [88]
piRNA calculates the partition function and thermodynamics of RNA-RNA interactions. It considers all possible joint secondary structure of two interacting nucleic acids that do not contain pseudoknots, interaction pseudoknots, or zigzags. yes no linuxbinary [89]
RNAripalign calculates the partition function and thermodynamics of RNA-RNA interactions based on structural alignments. Also supports RNA-RNA interaction prediction for single sequences. It outputs suboptimal structures based on Boltzmann distribution. It considers all possible joint secondary structure of two interacting nucleic acids that do not contain pseudoknots, interaction pseudoknots, or zigzags. yes no [2] [90]
RactIP Fast and accurate prediction of RNA-RNA interaction using integer programming. yes no sourcecode webserver [91]
RNAaliduplex Based upon RNAduplex with bonuses for covarying sites no yes sourcecode [13]
RNAcofold works much like RNAfold, but allows to specify two RNA sequences which are then allowed to form a dimer structure. yes no sourcecode [13][92]
RNAduplex computes optimal and suboptimal secondary structures for hybridization. The calculation is simplified by allowing only inter-molecular base pairs. no no sourcecode [13]
RNAhybrid a tool for finding the minimum free energy hybridisation of a long and a short RNA. no no sourcecode, webserver [93][94]
RNAup calculates the thermodynamics of RNA-RNA interactions. RNA-RNA binding is decomposed into two stages. (1) First the probability that a sequence interval (e.g. a binding site) remains unpaired is computed. (2) Then the binding energy given that the binding site is unpaired is calculated as the optimum over all possible types of bindings. yes no sourcecode [13][95]

Inter molecular interactions: MicroRNA:UTR[edit]

MicroRNAs regulate protein coding gene expression by binding to 3' UTRs, there are tools specifically designed for predicting these interactions. For an evaluation of target prediction methods on high-throughput experimental data see (Baek et al., Nature 2008) [96] and (Alexiou et al., Bioinformatics 2009)[97]

Name Description Species Specific Intra-molecular structure Comparative Link References
Diana-microT DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and it combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score. human, mouse no yes webserver [98]
MicroTar An animal miRNA target prediction tool based on miRNA-target complementarity and thermodynamic data. no no no sourcecode [99]
miTarget microRNA target gene prediction using a support vector machine. no no no webserver [100]
miRror Based on the notion of a combinatorial regulation by an ensemble of miRNAs or genes. miRror integrates predictions from a dozen of miRNA resources that are based on complementary algorithms into a unified statistical framework no no no webserver [101][102]
PicTar Combinatorial microRNA target predictions. 8 vertebrates no yes predictions [103]
PITA Incorporates the role of target-site accessibility, as determined by base-pairing interactions within the mRNA, in microRNA target recognition. no yes no executable, webserver, predictions [104]
RNA22 The first link (predictions) provides RNA22 predictions for all protein coding transcripts in human, mouse, roundworm, and fruit fly. It allows you to visualize the predictions within a cDNA map and also find transcripts where multiple miR's of interest target. The second web-site link (custom) first finds putative microRNA binding sites in the sequence of interest, then identifies the targeted microRNA. no no no predictions custom [105]
RNAhybrid a tool for finding the minimum free energy hybridisation of a long and a short RNA. no no no sourcecode, webserver [93][94]
Sylamer Sylamer is a method for finding significantly over or under-represented words in sequences according to a sorted gene list. Typically it is used to find significant enrichment or depletion of microRNA or siRNA seed sequences from microarray expression data. no no no sourcecode webserver [106][107]
TAREF TAREF stands for TARget REFiner. It predicts microRNA targets on the basis of multiple feature information derived from the flanking regions of the predicted target sites where traditional structure prediction approach may not be successful to assess the openness. It also provides an option to use encoded pattern to refine filtering. Yes no no server/sourcecode [108]
p-TAREF p-TAREF stands for plant TARget REFiner. It identifies plant microRNA targets on the basis of multiple feature information derived from the flanking regions of the predicted target sites where traditional structure prediction approach may not be successful to assess the openness. It also provides an option to use encoded pattern to refine filtering. It first time employed power of machine learning approach with scoring scheme through Support Vector Regression(SVR) while considering structural and alignment aspects of targeting in plants with plant specific models. p-TAREF has been implemented in concurrent architecture in server as well as standalone form, making it one of the very few available target identification tools able to run concurrently on simple desktops while performing huge transcriptome level analysis accurately and fast. Besides this, it also provides an option to experimentally validate the predicted targets, on the spot, using expression data, which has been integrated in its back-end, to draw confidence on prediction along with SVR score.p-TAREF performance benchmarking has been done extensively through different tests and compared with other plant miRNA target identification tools. p-TAREF was found better performing. Yes no no server/standalone
TargetScan Predicts biological targets of miRNAs by searching for the presence of sites that match the seed region of each miRNA. In flies and nematodes, predictions are ranked based on the probability of their evolutionary conservation. In zebrafish, predictions are ranked based on site number, site type, and site context, which includes factors that influence target-site accessibility. In mammals, the user can choose whether the predictions should be ranked based on the probability of their conservation or on site number, type, and context. In mammals and nematodes, the user can chose to extend the predictions beyond conserved sites and consider all sites. vertebrates, flies, nematodes evaluated indirectly yes sourcecode, webserver [109][110][111][112]

ncRNA gene prediction software[edit]

Name Description Number of sequences
[Note 1]
Alignment
[Note 2]
Structure
[Note 3]
Link References
Alifoldz Assessing a multiple sequence alignment for the existence of an unusual stable and conserved RNA secondary structure. any input yes sourcecode [113]
EvoFold a comparative method for identifying functional RNA structures in multiple-sequence alignments. It is based on a probabilistic model-construction called a phylo-SCFG and exploits the characteristic differences of the substitution process in stem-pairing and unpaired regions to make its predictions. any input yes linuxbinary [114]
GraphClust Fast RNA structural clustering method to identify common (local) RNA secondary structures. Predicted structural clusters are presented as alignment. Due to the linear time complexity for clustering it is possible to analyse large RNA datasets. any yes yes sourcecode [47]
MSARi heuristic search for statistically significant conservation of RNA secondary structure in deep multiple sequence alignments. any input yes sourcecode [115]
QRNA This is the code from Elena Rivas that accompanies a submitted manuscript "Noncoding RNA gene detection using camparative sequence analysis". QRNA uses comparative genome sequence analysis to detect conserved RNA secondary structures, including both ncRNA genes and cis-regulatory RNA structures. 2 input yes sourcecode [116][117]
RNAz program for predicting structurally conserved and thermodynamic stable RNA secondary structures in multiple sequence alignments. It can be used in genome wide screens to detect functional RNA structures, as found in noncoding RNAs and cis-acting regulatory elements of mRNAs. any input yes sourcecode, webserver RNAz 2 [118][119][120]
Xrate a program for analysis of multiple sequence alignments using phylogenetic grammars, that may be viewed as a flexible generalization of the "Evofold" program. any yes yes sourcecode [80]
Notes
  1. ^ Number of sequences: <any|num>.
  2. ^ Alignment: predicts an alignment, <input|yes|no>.
  3. ^ Structure: predicts structure, <input|yes|no>.

Family specific gene prediction software[edit]

Name Description Family Link References
ARAGORN ARAGORN detects tRNA and tmRNA in nucleotide sequences. tRNA tmRNA webserver source [121]
miReader miReader is a first of its type to detect mature miRNAs without any dependence upon genomic or reference sequences. So far, discovering miRNAs was possible only with species for which genomic or reference sequences would be available as most of the miRNA discovery tools relied on drawing pre-miRNA candidates. Due to this, miRNA biology became limited to model organisms, mostly. With miReader, one can now directly find out mature miRNAs from small RNA sequencing data, without any need of genomic/reference sequences. It has been developed for large number of Phyla and species, ranging from Vertebrate models to plant and fish models. Its accuracy has been found to be consistently >90% for large number of validatory testing. mature miRNA webserver/source webserver/source [122]
miRNAminer Given a search query, candidate homologs are identified using BLAST search and then tested for their known miRNA properties, such as secondary structure, energy, alignment and conservation, in order to assess their fidelity. MicroRNA webserver [123]
RISCbinder Prediction of guide strand of microRNAs. Mature miRNA webserver [124]
RNAmicro A SVM-based approach that, in conjunction with a non-stringent filter for consensus secondary structures, is capable of recognizing microRNA precursors in multiple sequence alignments. MicroRNA homepage [125]
RNAmmer RNAmmer uses HMMER to annotate rRNA genes in genome sequences. Profiles were built using alignments from the European ribosomal RNA database[126] and the 5S Ribosomal RNA Database.[127] rRNA webserver source [128]
SnoReport Uses a combination of RNA secondary structure prediction and machine learning that is designed to recognize the two major classes of snoRNAs, box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs, among ncRNA candidate sequences. snoRNA sourcecode [129]
SnoScan Search for C/D box methylation guide snoRNA genes in a genomic sequence. C/D box snoRNA sourcecode, webserver [130][131]
tRNAscan-SE a program for the detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence. tRNA sourcecode, webserver [131][132]
miRNAFold A fast ab initio software for searching for microRNA precursors in genomes. microRNA webserver [133]

RNA homology search software[edit]

Name Description Link References
ERPIN "Easy RNA Profile IdentificatioN" is an RNA motif search program reads a sequence alignement and secondary structure, and automatically infers a statistical "secondary structure profile" (SSP). An original Dynamic Programming algorithm then matches this SSP onto any target database, finding solutions and their associated scores. sourcecode webserver [134][135][136]
Infernal "INFERence of RNA ALignment" is for searching DNA sequence databases for RNA structure and sequence similarities. It is an implementation of a special case of profile stochastic context-free grammars called covariance models (CMs). sourcecode [137][138][139]
GraphClust Fast RNA structural clustering method to identify common (local) RNA secondary structures. Predicted structural clusters are presented as alignment. Due to the linear time complexity for clustering it is possible to analyse large RNA datasets. sourcecode [47]
PHMMTS "pair hidden Markov models on tree structures" is an extension of pair hidden Markov models defined on alignments of trees. sourcecode, webserver [140]
RaveNnA A slow and rigorous or fast and heuristic sequence-based filter for covariance models. sourcecode [141][142]
RSEARCH Takes a single RNA sequence with its secondary structure and utilizes a local alignment algorithm to search a database for homologous RNAs. sourcecode [143]
Structator Ultra fast software for searching for RNA structural motifs employing an innovative index-based bidirectional matching algorithm combined with a new fast fragment chaining strategy. sourcecode [144]

Benchmarks[edit]

Name Description Structure[Note 1] Alignment[Note 2] Phylogeny Links References
BRalibase I A comprehensive comparison of comparative RNA structure prediction approaches yes no no data [145]
BRalibase II A benchmark of multiple sequence alignment programs upon structural RNAs no yes no data [146]
BRalibase 2.1 A benchmark of multiple sequence alignment programs upon structural RNAs no yes no data [147]
BRalibase III A critical assessment of the performance of homology search methods on noncoding RNA no yes no data [148]
CompaRNA An independent comparison of single-sequence and comparative methods for RNA secondary structure prediction yes no no AMU mirror or IIMCB mirror [149]
Notes
  1. ^ Structure: benchmarks structure prediction tools <yes|no>.
  2. ^ Alignment: benchmarks alignment tools <yes|no>.

Alignment viewers/editors[edit]

Name Description Alignment[Note 1] Structure[Note 2] Link References
4sale A tool for Synchronous RNA Sequence and Secondary Structure Alignment and Editing yes yes sourcecode [150]
Colorstock, SScolor, Raton Colorstock, a command-line script using ANSI terminal color; SScolor, a Perl script that generates static HTML pages; and Raton, an AJAX web application generating dynamic HTML. Each tool can be used to color RNA alignments by secondary structure and to visually highlight compensatory mutations in stems. yes yes sourcecode [151]
Integrated Genome Browser (IGB) a multiple alignment viewer written in Java. yes no sourcecode [152]
Jalview a multiple alignment editor written in Java. yes no sourcecode [153][154]
RALEE a major mode for the Emacs text editor. It provides functionality to aid the viewing and editing of multiple sequence alignments of structured RNAs. yes yes sourcecode [155]
SARSE A graphical sequence editor for working with structural alignments of RNA. yes yes sourcecode [156]
Notes
  1. ^ Alignment: view and edit an alignment, <yes|no>.
  2. ^ Structure: view and edit structure, <yes|no>.

Inverse Folding/RNA design[edit]

Name Description Link References
Single state design
EteRNA/EteRNABot An RNA folding game that challenges players to come up with sequences that fold into a target RNA structure. The best sequences for a given puzzle are synthesized and their structures are probed through chemical mapping. The sequences are then scored by the data's agreement to the target structure and feedback is provided to the players. EteRNABot is a software implementation based on design rules submitted by EteRNA players. EteRNA Game EteRNABot Web Server [157]
NUPACK Although NUPACK can be used to get useful statistics and properties of an RNA's structure as mentioned above, its main goal is design of new sequences that fold into a desired structure. Home Page [87]
RNAinverse The ViennaRNA package provides RNAinverse, an algorithm for designing sequences with desired structure. Web Server [158]
RNAiFold A complete RNA inverse folding approach based in constraint programming which allows for the specification of a wide range of design constraints. Home Page [159]
RNA-SSD/RNA Designer The RNA-SSD (RNA Secondary Structure Designer) approach first assigns bases probabilistically to each position based probabilistic models. Subsequently a stochastic local search is used to optimize this sequence. RNA-SSD is publically available under the name of RNA Designer at the RNASoft web page Web Server [160]
INFO-RNA INFO-RNA uses a dynamic programming approach to generate a energy optimized starting sequence that is subsequently further improved by a stochastic local search that uses an effective neighbor selection method. Web Server Source Code [161] [162]
RNAexinv RNAexinv is an extension of RNAinverse to generate sequences that not only fold into a desired structure, but they should also exhibit selected attributes such as thermodynamic stability and mutational robustness. This approach does not necessarily outputs a sequence that perfectly fits the input structure, but a shape abstraction, i.e it keeps the adjacency and nesting of structural elements, but disregards helix lengths and the exact number unpaired positions, of it. Source Code [163]
RNA-ensign This approach applies an efficient global sampling algorithm to examine the mutational landscape under structural and thermodynamical constraints. The authors show that the global sampling approach is more robust, succeeds more often and generates more thermodynamically stable sequences than local approaches do. Source Code [164]
IncaRNAtion Successor of RNA-ensign that is able to specifically design sequences with a specified GC content using a GC-weighted Boltzmann ensemble and stochastic backtracking Source Code [165]
DSS-Opt The Dynamics in Sequence Space Optimization (DSS-Opt) approach uses Newtonian dynamics in the sequence space in combination with a negative design term and simulated annealing to optimize a sequence such that it folds into the desired secondary structure. Source Code [166]
Dual state design
switch.pl The ViennaRNA package provides a Perl script to design RNA sequences that are able to adopt two states. For instance RNA thermometer, which change their structural state depending on the environmental temperature, have been successfully designed using this program. Man Page Source Code [167]
Multi state design
RNAdesign The underlying algorithm of RNAdesign is based on a combination of graph coloring and heuristic local optimization to find sequences that are able to adapt multiple prescribed conformations. In addition the software is also able make use of RNAcofold to design interacting RNA sequence pairs. Source Code [168]
Frnakenstein Frnakenstein applies a genetic algorithm to solve the inverse RNA folding problem. Source Code [169]
ARDesigner The Allosteric RNA Designer (ARDesigner) is a web-based tool that solves the inverse folding problem by incorporating mutational robustness. Beside a local search the software has has been equipped with a simulated annealing approach to effectively search for good solutions. The tool has been used to design RNA thermometer. Broken Link [Note 1] [170]
Notes
  1. ^ Broken Link: Didn't find a functional link and contacted the authors (07/30/2014)

Secondary structure viewers/editors[edit]

Name Description Link References
PseudoViewer Automatically visualizing RNA pseudoknot structures as planar graphs. webapp/binary [171][172][173][174]
RNA Movies browse sequential paths through RNA secondary structure landscapes sourcecode [175][176]
RNA2D3D a program for generating, viewing, and comparing 3-dimensional models of RNA binary [177]
RNAstructure RNAstructure has a viewer for structures in ct files. It can also compare predicted structures using the circleplot program. Structures can be output as postscript files. sourcecode [178]
RNAView/RnamlView Use RNAView to automatically identify and classify the types of base pairs that are formed in nucleic acid structures. Use RnamlView to arrange RNA structures. sourcecode [179]
RILogo Visualizes the intra-/intermolecular base pairing of two interacting RNAs with sequence logos in a planar graph. web server / sourcecode [180]
VARNA A tool for the automated drawing, visualization and annotation of the secondary structure of RNA, initially designed as a companion software for web servers and databases webapp/sourcecode [181]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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