List of volcanoes in Iceland

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Some volcanoes of Iceland
Grímsvötn
Grímsvötn
Eyjafjallajökull
Eyjafjallajökull
Hekla
Hekla
Hengill
Hengill
Krýsuvík
Krýsuvík
Katla
Katla
Laki
Laki
Öræfajökull
Öræfajökull
Surtsey
Surtsey
Askja
Askja
Eldfell
Eldfell
Krafla
Krafla
Langjökull
Langjökull
Hofsjökull
Hofsjökull
Snæfellsjökull
Snæfellsjökull
Ljósufjöll
Ljósufjöll
Þeistareykjabunga
Þeistareykjabunga
Bárðarbunga
Bárðarbunga

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Iceland. Iceland has about 130 volcanic mountains, of which 18 have erupted since the human settlement of circa 900 CE.

List 89[edit]

Name Elevation (m) Elevation (ft) Coordinates Last eruption VEI Notes
Askja 1516 4974 65°02′N 16°45′W / 65.03°N 16.75°W / 65.03; -16.75 (Askja) 1961 5
Bárðarbunga 2005 6515 64°38′N 17°34′W / 64.64°N 17.56°W / 64.64; -17.56 (Bárðarbunga) 2014
Brennisteinsfjöll 626 2054 63°55′N 21°50′W / 63.92°N 21.83°W / 63.92; -21.83 (Brennisteinsfjöll) 1341 (± 1 year) 2
Eldfell 279 915 63°26′N 20°15′W / 63.43°N 20.25°W / 63.43; -20.25 (Eldfell) 1973 3 Vestmannaeyjar island of Heimaey
Eldgjá ca 800 ca 2625 64°14′N 18°22′W / 64.24°N 18.37°W / 64.24; -18.37 (Eldgjá) 934 6 This volcano is a vent of Katla
Esjufjöll 1760 5774 64°16′N 16°39′W / 64.27°N 16.65°W / 64.27; -16.65 (Esjufjöll) 1927
Eyjafjallajökull 1666 5466 63°38′N 19°37′W / 63.63°N 19.62°W / 63.63; -19.62 (Eyjafjallajökull) 2010 4
Fremrinámur 939 3081 65°26′N 16°39′W / 65.43°N 16.65°W / 65.43; -16.65 (Fremrinámur) 800 BC (± 300 years)
Grensdalur 497 1631 64°01′N 21°10′W / 64.02°N 21.17°W / 64.02; -21.17 (Grensdalur) dormant Active during Pleistocene
Grímsnes 214 702 64°02′N 20°52′W / 64.03°N 20.87°W / 64.03; -20.87 (Grímsnes) ~3500 BC 3
Grímsvötn 1725 5659 64°25′N 17°20′W / 64.42°N 17.33°W / 64.42; -17.33 (Grímsvötn) 2011 4
Hekla 1491 4892 63°59′N 19°42′W / 63.98°N 19.70°W / 63.98; -19.70 (Hekla) 2000 3
Hengill 803 2634 64°11′N 21°20′W / 64.18°N 21.33°W / 64.18; -21.33 (Hengill) 90 AD (± 100 years) 2
Herðubreið 1682 5518 65°11′N 16°20′W / 65.18°N 16.34°W / 65.18; -16.34 (Herðubreið) Dormant Active during Pleistocene
Hofsjökull 1782 5846 64°51′N 19°32′W / 64.85°N 19.53°W / 64.85; -19.53 (Hofsjökull) Dormant Active during Holocene
Hrómundartindur 540 1772 64°04′N 21°12′W / 64.07°N 21.20°W / 64.07; -21.20 (Hrómundartindur) 10000 BP
Hverfjall 420 1378 65°22′N 16°32′W / 65.36°N 16.53°W / 65.36; -16.53 (Hverfjall) ~500 BC part of Krafla fissure system
Hveravellir 1360 4462 64°45′N 19°59′W / 64.75°N 19.98°W / 64.75; -19.98 (Hveravellir) 950 AD ± 50 years 6 central volcano of eastern Langjökull system
Jólnir 70* 230* 63°18′N 20°38′W / 63.30°N 20.63°W / 63.30; -20.63 (Jólnir) 1966 This vent of Surtsey has since eroded to below sea level
Katla 1512 4961 63°38′N 19°03′W / 63.63°N 19.05°W / 63.63; -19.05 (Katla) 1918 5
Kerlingarfjöll 1488 4882 64°38′N 19°19′W / 64.63°N 19.32°W / 64.63; -19.32 (Kerlingarfjöll) dormant Active during Holocene
Kolbeinsey Ridge 5 16 66°40′N 18°30′W / 66.67°N 18.50°W / 66.67; -18.50 (Kolbeinsey) 1755 [1]
Kollóttadyngja 1177 3825 65°13′N 16°33′W / 65.22°N 16.55°W / 65.22; -16.55 (Kollóttadyngja) unknown
Krafla 650 2133 65°44′N 16°47′W / 65.73°N 16.78°W / 65.73; -16.78 (Krafla) 1984 4
Krýsuvík 379 1243 63°56′N 22°06′W / 63.93°N 22.10°W / 63.93; -22.10 (Krýsuvík) probably ~1340 2
Krakatindur 300 984 63°33′N 19°18′W / 63.55°N 19.30°W / 63.55; -19.30 (Krakatindur) unknown
Kverkfjöll 1920 6299 64°39′N 16°43′W / 64.65°N 16.72°W / 64.65; -16.72 (Kverkfjöll) 1968 1
Laki 1725 5606 64°04′N 18°13′W / 64.06°N 18.22°W / 64.06; -18.22 (Laki) 1783-84 6 part of Grímsvötn fissure system
Loki-Fögrufjöll 1570 5151 64°29′N 17°48′W / 64.48°N 17.80°W / 64.48; -17.80 (Fögrufjöll) 1910
Ljósufjöll 988 3241 64°52′N 22°14′W / 64.87°N 22.23°W / 64.87; -22.23 (Ljósufjöll) 960 AD (± 10 years) 3
Lýsuhóll 540+ 1772+ 64°52′N 23°15′W / 64.87°N 23.25°W / 64.87; -23.25 (Lýsuhóll) dormant Active during Holocene
Öræfajökull 2119 6952 64°00′N 16°39′W / 64.00°N 16.65°W / 64.00; -16.65 (Öræfajökull) 1727 5
Prestahnúkur 1386 4504 64°36′N 20°36′W / 64.60°N 20.60°W / 64.60; -20.60 (Prestahnúkur) 7550 BC (± 500 years) central volcano of western Langjökull system
Reykjanes 230 755 63°53′N 22°30′W / 63.88°N 22.50°W / 63.88; -22.50 (Reykjanes) 1879
Reykjaneshryggur -80 -262 63°40′N 23°20′W / 63.67°N 23.33°W / 63.67; -23.33 (Reykjaneshryggur) 1970(?)
Snæfellsjökull 1448 4751 64°48′N 23°47′W / 64.80°N 23.78°W / 64.80; -23.78 (Snæfellsjökull) 200 AD (± 150 years) 2
Surtsey 174 571 63°18′N 20°37′W / 63.30°N 20.62°W / 63.30; -20.62 (Surtsey) 1963 in the Vestmannaeyjar islands
Theistareykjarbunga 564 1850 65°53′N 16°50′W / 65.88°N 16.83°W / 65.88; -16.83 (Theistareykjarbunga) 750 BC (± 100 years)
Thordarhyrna 64°07′N 17°00′W / 64.12°N 17.0°W / 64.12; -17.0 (Thordarhyrna) 1910 4
Þórólfsfell 574 1883 63°43′N 19°40′W / 63.72°N 19.67°W / 63.72; -19.67 (Thórólfsfell) unknown
Tindfjallajökull 1463 4800 63°47′N 19°34′W / 63.78°N 19.57°W / 63.78; -19.57 (Tindfjallajökull) dormant Active during Holocene
Torfajökull 1259 4131 63°55′N 19°10′W / 63.92°N 19.17°W / 63.92; -19.17 (Torfajökull) 1477 3
Tungnafellsjökull 1535 5036 64°44′N 17°55′W / 64.73°N 17.92°W / 64.73; -17.92 (Tungnafellsjökull) dormant Active during Holocene
Vatnafjöll 1235 4052 63°55′N 19°40′W / 63.92°N 19.67°W / 63.92; -19.67 (Vatnafjöll) 750 AD (± 1000 years)

Volcanic zones and systems[edit]

Volcanism in Iceland

Iceland has four volcanic zones: Reykjanes (Reykjanes Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge South of Iceland), West and North Volcanic Zones (RVZ, WVZ, NVZ) and the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ), (Westman Islands). The Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB) connects them across central Iceland. There are two intraplate belts too (Öræfajökull (ÖVB) and Snæfellsnes (SVB)). [2][3] North of Iceland the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is called Kolbeinsey Ridge.

The central volcanoes (Iceland's East Volcanic Zone (EVZ)), Vonarskarð and Hágöngur belong to the same volcanic system, this also applies to Bárðarbunga and Hamarinn, and Grímsvötn and Þórðarhyrna.[4] It is proposed that the line Grímsvötn volcano, Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB) to Snæfellsnes volcanic belt shows the movement of the North American Plate over the Iceland hotspot.[5]

Volcanic Zone Volcanic System Name of central volcano
of the volcanic system
1 RVZ Reykjanes/Svartsengi Gunnuhver
2 RVZ Krýsuvík Trölladyngja (Reykjanesskagi)
3 RVZ Brennisteinsfjöll void
4 WVZ Hengill Hengill
5 WVZ Hrómundartindur Hrómundartindur
6 WVZ Grensdalur void
7 WVZ Grímsnes Seyðishólar
8 WVZ Geysir Laugarfjall
9 WVZ Western Langjökull Prestahnúkur
10 WVZ Eastern Langjökull Hveravellir
11 MIB Hofsjökull Hofsjökull
12 MIB Kerlingarfjöll Snækollur
13 MIB Tungnafellsjökull Tungnafellsjökull/Hágöngur
14 EVZ Vestmannaeyjar
(Westman Islands)
void
15 EVZ Eyjafjallajökull Eyjafjallajökull
16 EVZ Katla Katla
17 EVZ Tindfjallajökull Tindfjallajökull
18 EVZ Hekla-Vatnafjöll Hekla
19 EVZ Torfajökull Torfajökull
20 EVZ Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn Bárðarbunga/Hamarinn
21 EVZ Grímsvötn Grímsvötn/Thórdarhyrna
# EVZ (Central volcanoes, as well) (Vonarskard/Hágöngur)[4]
22 NVZ Kverkfjöll Austari Kverkfjöll
23 NVZ Askja Askja
24 NVZ Fremrinámur void
25 NVZ Krafla Krafla
26 NVZ Þeistareykir Þeistareykjabunga
27 ÖVB Öræfajökull Öræfajökull
28 ÖVB Esjufjöll Snæhetta
29 ÖVB Snæfell Snæfell
30 SVB Ljósufjöll void
31 SVB Lýsuskarð Helgrindur
32 SVB Snæfellsjökull Snæfellsjökull

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.volcanolive.com/kolbeinsey.html
  2. ^ T. Thordarson and G. Larsen (January 2007). "Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: Volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history". Journal of Geodynamics 43 (1): 118–152. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..118T. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.005. 
  3. ^ Jóhannesson, H.; Sæmundsson, K. (1998). Geologic Map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Bedrock Geology. Icelandic Institute of Natural History and Iceland Geodetic Survey, Reykjavík. 
  4. ^ a b Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thórdís Högnadóttir (January 2007). "Volcanic systems and calderas in the Vatnajökull region, central Iceland: Constraints on crustal structure from gravity data". Journal of Geodynamics 43 (1): 153–169. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..153G. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.015. 
  5. ^ W. Jason Morgan and Jason Phipps Morgan. Plate velocities in hotspot reference frame: electronic supplement. p. 111. Retrieved 2010-04-23.