Loop-mediated isothermal amplification
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a single tube technique for the amplification of DNA.  This may be of use in future as a low cost alternative to detect certain diseases. It may be combined with a reverse transcription step to allow the detection of RNA.
LAMP is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification. Isothermal amplification in general obviates the need for thermal cyclers. Detection of amplification product can be determined via photometry for turbidity caused by an increasing quantity of Magnesium pyrophosphate in solution as a byproduct of amplification  or with addition of SYBR green, a color change can be seen without equipment. Also in-tube detection of DNA amplification is possible using manganese loaded calcein which starts fluorescing upon complexation of manganese by pyrophosphate during in vitro DNA synthesis.
Uses and benefits
LAMP has the potential to be used as a simple screening assay in the field or at the point of care by clinicians. As previously mentioned, LAMP is isothermal which eradicates the need for expensive thermocyclers used in conventional PCR, it may be a particularly useful method for infectious disease diagnosis in low and middle income countries. <
LAMP is a relatively new DNA amplification technique, which due to its simplicity, ruggedness, and low cost could provide major advantages. In LAMP, the target sequence is amplified at a constant temperature of 60 - 65 °C using either two or three sets of primers and a polymerase with high strand displacement activity in addition to a replication activity. Typically, 4 different primers are used to identify 6 distinct regions on the target gene, which adds highly to the specificity. Due to the specific nature of the action of these primers, the amount of DNA produced in LAMP is considerably higher than PCR based amplification. The corresponding release of pyrophosphate results in visible turbidity due to precipitation, which allows easy visualization by the naked eye, especially for larger reaction volumes or via simple detection approaches for smaller volumes. The reaction can be followed in real-time either by measuring the turbidity  or the signals from DNA produced via fluorescent dyes that intercalate or directly label the DNA, and in turn can be correlated to the number of copies initially present. Hence, LAMP can also be quantitative. While LAMP is widely being studied for detecting infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sleeping sickness in developing regions, it has yet to be extensively validated for other common pathogens.
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