Lucilio Vanini (1585 – February 9, 1619) was an Italian free-thinker, who in his works styled himself Giulio Cesare Vanini. He was the first literate proponent of the thesis that humans evolved from apes. He was also amongst the first thinkers after antiquity who viewed universe as an entity governed by natural laws (nomological determinism).
He was born at Taurisano, near Lecce, and studied philosophy and theology at Rome. After his return to Lecce he applied himself to the physical studies—chiefly medicine and astronomy—which had come into vogue with the Renaissance. Like Giordano Bruno, he attacked scholasticism.
From Naples he went to Padua, where he came under the influence of the Alexandrist Pomponazzi, whom he styled his divine master. At Padua he studied law, and was ordained a priest. Subsequently he led a roving life in France, Switzerland and the Low Countries, supporting himself by giving lessons and disseminating anti-Christian views. He was obliged to flee from Lyon to England in 1614, but was imprisoned in London for an unknown reason for forty-nine days.
Returning to Italy, he made an attempt to teach in Genoa, but was driven once more to France, where he tried to clear himself of suspicion by publishing a book against atheism, Amphitheatrum Aeternae Providentiae Divino-Magicum (1615). Though the definitions of God are somewhat pantheistic, the book served its immediate purpose. That the book does not expound Vanini's actual views, which he expressly stated in his second work, De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis (Paris, 1616), which, originally certified by two doctors of the Sorbonne, was later re-examined and condemned.
Vanini then left Paris, where he had been staying as chaplain to the marechal de Bassompierre, and began to teach in Toulouse. In November 1618 he was arrested, and after a prolonged trial was condemned to have his tongue cut out, and to be strangled at the stake, his body to be afterwards burned to ashes. The sentence was executed on 9 February 1619.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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