Lucjan Żeligowski

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
General
Lucjan Żeligowski
Zeligowski LOC 31862u.jpg
Leader of the Republic of Central Lithuania
In office
October 12, 1920 – March 24, 1922
Preceded by Part of Lithuania
Succeeded by Merged into Poland
Personal details
Born (1865-10-17)October 17, 1865
Oszmiana, Russian Empire
Died July 9, 1947(1947-07-09) (aged 81)
London, England
Nationality Polish
Lucjan Żeligowski
Born (1865-10-17)October 17, 1865
Oszmiana, Russian Empire
Died July 9, 1947(1947-07-09)
London, England
Years of service from 1885, Russian Army
Rank Generał broni (General of arms)
Commands held Front Commander
Head of State of Central Lithuania
Minister of Military Affairs
Battles/wars Russo-Japanese War, Great War, Polish-Ukrainian War, Polish-Bolshevik War, Invasion of Poland in World War II
Awards Virtuti Militari Commander's Cross Virtuti Militari Silver Medal Polonia Restituta Grand Cross Krzyz Walecznych Krzyz Walecznych Krzyz Walecznych Krzyz Walecznych Cross of Independence Cross of Military Merits of Central Lithuania
Other work Member of Parliament

Lucjan Żeligowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈlut͡sjan ʐɛliˈɡɔfskʲi]; 1865–1947), was a Polish general, and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II. He is mostly remembered for his role in Żeligowski's Mutiny and as head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania.

Biography[edit]

Lucjan Żeligowski was born October 17, 1865, in Oszmiana, in the Russian Empire (modern Ashmiany in Belarus) to Polish parents Gustaw Żeligowski and Władysława Żeligowska née Traczewska. After graduating from military officers' school in Riga during 1885, he joined the Russian Army, where he served at various staff and command posts. Married to Tatiana Pietrowna, he had two children.

He fought in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. During the First World War he served as a lieutenant colonel and commanding officer of a Russian rifle regiment.

Fighting against the Bolsheviks[edit]

After the February Revolution of 1917, Żeligowski became one of the organizers of the Polish Army in Russia. Initially commander of an infantry regiment in the ranks of the Polish 1st Corps, he was quickly promoted and given command over a brigade. In 1918 he started the creation of a Polish unit in the area of Kuban, which eventually became the 4th Polish Rifle Division. As part of the Polish Army, his unit fought alongside the Denikin's Whites in the Russian Civil War. In October of the same year he became the Commander in Chief of all the Polish units fighting in Russia.

After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War and the defeat of Denikin, Żeligowski's unit was ordered to retreat to Romanian Bessarabia, where it took part in defence of the border against Bolshevik raids. Finally, in April 1919, the division was withdrawn to Poland, where it was incorporated into the Polish Army and renamed to Polish 10th Infantry Division.

During the war against the Bolshevist Russia, Żeligowski, a personal friend of Polish C-i-C Józef Piłsudski, was quickly promoted to general and given the command over an operational group of his name, composed of his 10th division and additional units, mostly of partisan origin. As such, he soon became the commanding officer of the entire Lithuanian-Belarusian Front, operating in the area of Polesie and the Pinsk Marshes. During the Battle of Warsaw his unit was attached to the 3rd Polish Army and took part in the pursuit of fleeing Red forces and the Battle of the Niemen.

Republic of Central Lithuania[edit]

In October 1920, Żeligowski, a native of historical lands of Lithuania, was chosen to command the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division, composed mainly of P.O.W. members, volunteers and partisans from the territory of modern Belarus and Lithuania. On October 8, 1920, after a staged coup, he defected with his unit and took control over the city of Wilno (modern Vilnius, Lithuania) and its area. The coup, named after him, would be remembered as the defining moments of his life. On October 12 he proclaimed independence of the said area as Republic of Central Lithuania, with Wilno as its capital. Initially a de facto military dictator, after the parliamentary elections he passed his powers to the newly elected parliament, which in turn decided to submit the area to Poland.

Later life[edit]

Lucjan Żeligowski, painting from 1932
Żeligowski's family coat-of-arms, Łabędź ("Swan").

After the annexation of Central Lithuania to Poland, Żeligowski continued his service in the Polish Army. Promoted to three-star general in 1923, he served as an army inspector, or a commander of a military district of Warsaw. In 1925 he also became the Polish Minister of Military Affairs. Ousted by Piłsudski's coup d'état (the May Coup), he was soon returned to the post. He retired the following year and settled in his family manor in Andrzejewo near Wilno.

In 1930 he published a book containing his memoirs of the Polish-Bolshevik War named War of 1920: Memories and thoughts (Wojna w roku 1920. Wspomnienia i rozważania). He also wrote numerous articles on the conflicts of early 20th century for a variety of Polish newspapers. In 1935 he was elected a member of parliament and remained in the Sejm until 1939.

World War II[edit]

During the Invasion of Poland in 1939, Żeligowski volunteered for the Polish Army, but was not accepted due to his old age (he was 74 at that time) and poor health. Nevertheless, he served as an advisor to the command of the Polish southern front. After the Polish defeat, he evaded being captured by the Germans and the Soviets and managed to reach France, where he joined the Polish Government in Exile. An active member of the Polish National Council, an advisory body, he escaped to London after the French defeat in 1940.

After the end of Second World War he declared he would return to Poland, but he suddenly died on July 9, 1947, in London. His body was returned to Poland, and Żeligowski was buried in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. He is an honorary citizen of Warsaw.

Honours and awards[edit]

Żeligowski's grave at Powązki Military Cemetery

Published works[edit]

  • Lucjan Żeligowski, Wojna w roku 1920: Wspomnienia I Rozwazania, Warszawa: Wydawn. Ministerstwa * Obrony Narodowej, 1990.
  • Lucjan Żeligowski,O ideę słowiańską. London: F. Mildner & Sons, 1941.
  • Lucjan Żeligowski, Zapomniane prawdy. London: F. Mildner & Sons, 1941.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Polish Wikipedia.

Further reading[edit]

English[edit]

Polish[edit]

  • Fabisz, Dariusz (2007), Generał Lucjan Żeligowski 1865-1947. Działalność wojskowa i polityczna (English: ), Warsaw: DiG 
  • Hołówko, Tadeusz (28 October 1920), "Robotnik", Spór o Wilno (English: The Dispute Over Vilnius) (Robotnik): 1 
  • Kawalec, Tadeusz (1993), Historia IV-ej Dywizji Strzelców Generała Żeligowskiego w zarysie (English: History of 4th Rifleman Division of General Żeligowski in brief), Gryf, OCLC 32178695 
  • Kicman, Wojciech (1988), "Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny (English: )", Jeszcze w sprawie gen. broni L. Żeligowskiego (English: ) (Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny) (no.124 (nr.2/1988)): 319–335 
  • Kryska-Karski, Tadeusz; Żurakowski, Stanisław (1991) [London, Nakładem autorów, 1976], Generałowie Polski niepodległej (English: Generals of Polish Independence), Warsaw: Editions Spotkania, OCLC 24935744 
  • Lukowski, Grzegorz; Stolarski, Rafal E. (1994), Walka o Wilno : z dziejów samoobrony Litwy i Białorusi, 1918-1919 (English: Battle for Vilnius: History of Lithuanian and Belarus self-defense), Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Audiutor, ISBN 83-900085-0-5 
  • Łossowski, Piotr (1995), Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918-1920 (English: Polish-Lithuanian Conflict 1918-1920), Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, ISBN 83-05-12769-9 
  • Marczyk, Wiesław (1987), "Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny (English: )", Generał broni Lucjan Żeligowski (English: ) (Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny) (no.122 (nr.4/1987)): 44–53 
  • Sawczynski, Adam (1959), Polska w obronie swoich granic. Wojna z bolszewikami; w dziele zbiorowym Polska niepodlegla i druga wojna swiatowa (1918-1945) (English: ), London: Orbis 
  • Sosnkowski, Kazimierz (1988) [London 1943], Rzepniewski, Andrzej, ed., Cieniom września (English: ) (I ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo MON, p. 72, ISBN 83-11-07627-8