M939 Truck

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M939 series
US Marine Corps 030224-M-XT622-034 USMC M923 (6X6) 5-ton cargo truck heads a convoy departing Camp Matilda, Kuwait crop.jpg
United States Marine Corps M923
Type 5 ton (4536kg)[a] 6x6 trucks
Place of origin  United States
Production history
Manufacturer AM General
Produced from 1982
from 1989 (M939A2)
Specifications
Weight 20,510 lb (9,300 kg) -
37,600 lb (17,100 kg)
Length 263 in (6.68 m) - 383 in (9.73 m)
Width 98 in (2.49 m)
Height 111 in (2.82 m) - 138 in (3.51 m)

Engine Cummins NHC-250
Cummins 6CTA8.3 (M939A2)
240 hp (180 kW)
Transmission 5 spd. auto. x 2 range trf. case
Suspension Beam axles on leaf springs
Operational
range
350 mi (563.3 km)-480 mi (772.5 km)
Speed 63 mph (101 km/h)

The M939 Truck is a 5-ton 6×6 U.S. military heavy truck. Designed in the late 1970s to replace the M809 series of trucks, it has been in service ever since.[1] The M939 evolved into its own family of cargo trucks, prime movers, and recovery vehicles, with about 32,000 in all produced.[1][1]

Specifications[edit]

U.S. Marine Corps M923
M923 Cargo Truck with armored cab

All models of the M939 share a common basic chassis, cab, and hood/fenders. The basic truck is a 6×6 (three axles, six wheels, all of which are powered) medium truck. Early M939s were rebuilds of M809 vehicle chassis by AM General, with a new automatic transmission, cab, and hood/fender. Suffix –A2 are new production by Bowen-McLaughlin-York/BMY with later model Cummins engine. The vehicles have a wide variety of configurations and weights.[2][3][4]

Note that the motor and tire specifications, along with other improvements, apply to the A2 versions (and A1 versions) of each base model listed below. There is an M928, an M928A1, and M928A2.

Engine[edit]

The M939 and M939A1 models use a Cummins NHC 250 855 cu in (14.0 L) naturally aspirated diesel engine, producing 240 hp (180 kW) at 2100rpm and 685 lbf·ft (929 N·m) at 1500rpm. This was the standard engine of the M809 series. The M939A2 models use a newer and smaller Cummins 6CTA8.3 504 cu in (8.3 L) turbocharged diesel engine producing 240 hp (180 kW) at 2100 and 745 lbf·ft (1,010 N·m) at 1,500 rpm. All models have an Allison 5 speed automatic transmission with a two speed transfer case.[5][6]

Tires[edit]

The M939 uses 11:00 R20 tires with two tires per side per axle in the rear (rear tandem duals). The M939A1 and M939A2 series use oversized 14:00 R20 tires and rear tandem singles. M939A2 series vehicles use a central tire inflation system (CTIS).

Wheelbases[edit]

There are three wheelbases. The short, used for tractors and dumps, is 167 in (4,200 mm) / 194 in (4,900 mm), the long ("standard"), used for cargo and wreckers, is 179 in (4,500 mm) / 206 in (5,200 mm), and the extra long, used for long cargo and expansible vans, is 215 in (5,500 mm) / 242 in (6,100 mm). (Measurements are from the centerline of the front axle to the centerline of rear bogie / rear axle).

M939 series dimensions[edit]

Model[2] Wheelbase[b] Length Width Height Weight[c]
M923 Cargo[d][e] long 307 in (780 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116 in (290 cm)[f] 21,600 lb (9,800 kg)
M924 Cargo[d] long 307 in (780 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116 in (290 cm)[f].

23,337 lb (10,585 kg)

M925 Cargo[d][e][g] long 329 in (840 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116[f] in (290 cm) 22,360 lb (10,140 kg)
M926 Cargo[g] long 328 in (830 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116 in (290 cm)[f] 24,060 lb (10,910 kg)
M927 Cargo[d] extra long 383 in (970 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116 in (290 cm)[f] 27,749 lb (12,587 kg)
M928 Cargo[g] extra long 404 in (1,030 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 116 in (290 cm)[f] 27,811 lb (12,615 kg)
M929 Dump[d] short 273 in (690 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 117 in (300 cm) 25,880 lb (11,740 kg)
M930 Dump[g] short 294 in (750 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 117 in (300 cm) 23,990 lb (10,880 kg)
M931 Tractor[d] short 273 in (690 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 112 in (280 cm)[f] 22,089 lb (10,019 kg)
M932 Tractor[g] short 286 in (730 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 112 in (280 cm)[f] 22,841 lb (10,361 kg)
M934 Expansible van extra long 365 in (930 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 136 in (350 cm) 29,946 lb (13,583 kg)
M935 Expansible van extra long 371 in (940 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 136 in (350 cm) 31,851 lb (14,447 kg)
M936 Wrecker long 362 in (920 cm) 98 in (250 cm) 106 in (270 cm) 39,334 lb (17,842 kg)

Operators[edit]

Safety[edit]

The safety of the M939 series of trucks has been criticized, especially braking performance and stability when loaded. In 1999 the U.S. Army began refitting anti-lock brake systems to the M939 trucks. Until the trucks were modified, they were limited to a 40 mph (65 km/h) top speed by an Army-wide safety order.[citation needed]

Prior to that improvement, 26% of all Army vehicle accidents and 53% of all Army vehicle accident fatalities were in M939 series trucks. From 1987 to 1998 the series made up 9% of the total U.S. Army vehicle inventory, but accounted for 34% of all fatal accidents.[8]

The problem seemed to be that the torque converter would "lock up" in 2nd gear, and would not unlock easily. When the driver attempted to brake hard, often in a sudden or 'panic' stop, and accidentally locked the brakes (no wheel movement, tires skidding), this would kill the engine; this also killed the power steering, and the driver would suddenly be unable to steer. Too often, the truck would veer sideways and either hit something or roll over.[citation needed][9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Off-road load rating.
  2. ^ S for short, L for long, XL for extra long.
  3. ^ Empty weight.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Without a winch.
  5. ^ a b Dropside body.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Reducible to 92 in (230 cm)
  7. ^ a b c d e With a winch.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "http://www.military-today.com"
  2. ^ a b "TM9-2320-272-10 Operator’s manual for Truck 5 ton, 6X6, M939 series". US Depts. of the Army and the Air Force. 25 Jul 1984. Retrieved 7 Dec 2014. 
  3. ^ Crismon, Fred W. (1998). Modern U.S. Military Vehicles. MBI Publishing. pp. 91–96. ISBN 0-7603-0526-9. 
  4. ^ Doyle, David (2003). Standard catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles. Kraus Publications. pp. 202–203, 205. ISBN 0-87349-508-X. 
  5. ^ Crismon (1998), p. 95.
  6. ^ Doyle (2003), p. 203-204.
  7. ^ Ejercito Argentino REO M931A2 03 Octubre 2014
  8. ^ M939 series information page at globalsecurity.org, Accessed 5 Dec 2014
  9. ^ "Military Safety: Army M939 5-Ton Truck Accident History and Planned Modifications". GlobalSecurity.org. US General Accounting Office. 4 Sep 1999. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 

External links[edit]