Management by exception

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Management by exception is a style of business management that focuses on identifying and handling cases that deviate from the norm, recommended as best practice by PRINCE2.

Management by exception has both a general business application and a business intelligence application. General business exceptions are cases that deviate from the normal behavior in a business process and need to be cared for in a unique manner, typically by human intervention. Their cause might include: process deviation, infrastructure or connectivity issues, external deviation, poor quality business rules, malformed data, etc. Management by exception here is the practice of investigating, resolving and handling such occurrences by using skilled staff and software tools. Good management can contribute to efficiency of business processes. Often in these cases the process will be called exception management, as exceptional cases are not the sole focus of the managerial policy, and exception management (as opposed to management by exception) denotes a more moderate application of the process.

Management by exception (MBE), when applied to business is a style of management that gives employees the responsibility to take decisions and to fulfill their work or projects by themselves.[1] It consists of focus and analysis of statistically relevant anomalies in the data. If an unusual situation or deviation in the recorded data appears, which could cause difficulties for the business and can’t be managed by the employee at his level, the employee should pass the decision on to the next higher level.[2] For example, if all products are selling at their expected volumes for the quarter, except one particular product which is underperforming or overperforming at a statistically relevant margin, only the data for that product will be presented to the managers for further investigation and discovery of the root cause. Management by exception can bring forward business errors and oversights,[3] ineffective strategies that need to be improved, changes in competition[4] and business opportunities. Management by exception is intended to reduce the managerial load and enable managers to spend their time more effectively in areas where it will have the most impact.[5][6]

Exception management also has an IT application. When writing code, if the programmer sees that there will be an exceptional case where a predefined assumption of the application will be breached,[7] the programmer will need to deal with that exception programmatically from the outset.

Process of management by exception[edit]

Primarily, it is necessary to set objectives or norms with predictable or estimated results. These performances are assessed and get equated to the actual performance.[8] Next, the deviation gets analysed. With an insignificant or no deviation, no action is required and senior managers can concentrate on other matters. If actual performances deviate significantly, the concern needs to be passed to the senior managers, as an “exception has occurred”. Finally, the aim is to solve this “exception” immediately.[9][10]

Management by exception using variance analysis[edit]

The accounting department is responsible for the forecasting of budgets and cost performance reports. The difference between the estimated and actual figures is defined as variance.[11] To understand the cause of the difference, managers need to investigate the questions how the variance differs from last period and what are the causes for not reaching the estimated figures.[12] Analysers consider two types of variances: adverse variance and favourable variance. Adverse variance “exists when the difference between the budgeted and actual figure leads to a lower than expected profit”.[13] Favourable variance “exists when the difference between the budgeted and actual figure leads to a higher than expected profit”.[13] Rather than considering all variances, managers establish criteria to determine which variances are significant to focus on. Management by exception focuses mainly on large adverse variances, to find the areas of business, which deviates from predetermined standards in a negative way.[14]

Advantages of management by exception[edit]

The main advantage of management by exception is that problematic issues are identified rapidly and managers are able to use their time and energy more wisely for important issues rather than for less important ones that could provoke delays in their daily operations.[15] Additionally, managers need to work less on statistics and the frequency of making decisions becomes less, which saves time. As managers take fewer decisions, employees have more responsibility, which increases their motivation.[9]

Disadvantage of management by exception[edit]

Occurrences of mistakes in calculating budgets results in large variance differences and finding the errors can be time-consuming. Furthermore, financial analysts responsible for calculation variances are increasing overhead costs of a company. If the financial analysts are not performing well, it will become a waste of time and money. Another disadvantage is that only managers have the power over really important decisions, which can be demotivating for employees at a lower level. Furthermore, the time taken for passing the issues to managers can be time-consuming.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anon (2014). "Management by exception". Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Cambrdige: Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Anon (2014). "Management by exception (MBE)". BusinessDictionary. WebFinance. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "Making sense of your data - Telecommunications business development". Verix.com. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  4. ^ "Making sense of your data - Pharmaceutical sales". Verix.com. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Bragg, S (23 May 2014). "What is management by exception?". Accounting tools. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  6. ^ Northouse, P.G. "Transactional Leadership Factors". Leadership: Theory and Practice. SAGE. p. 195. 
  7. ^ Guy, Handy. "Best Practices of Exception Management". Codeproject.com. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  8. ^ Anon (18 January 2013). "Budgets". Tutor2u. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Banerjee, A (2012). "5 main process of management by exception". Preserve Articles. Archived from the original on 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Academic Conferences. "The transactional leadership". Proceedings of the International Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance. Academic Conferences Limited. p. 153. 
  11. ^ Anon (2011). "Management by Exception and Variance Analysis". Accounting explanation. Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  12. ^ Rafique, S (31 March 2014). "Standard Cost-Management by Exception". Management Accounting. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Stimpson, P; Smith, A (2011). Budgetary control - variance analysis (Business and Management for the IB Diploma ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 283. 
  14. ^ Heisinger, K; Hoyle, J (2014). "Determining Which Cost Variance to Investigate". Flat World Education. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014. 
  15. ^ Smothers, A.E. "Transactional Leadership Style". Perceived Leadership Style of a Mayor and Its Impact on Organzational Commitment of Municipal Employees. Capella University. p. pp. 11–13. 
  • Bittel, Lester R. (1964). Management by Exception; Systematizing and Simplifying the Managerial Job. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Gardner, Fred V. (1940). Variable Budget Control Through Management by Exception and Dynamic Costs. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  • Mackintosh, Donald P. (1978). Management by Exception: A Handbook with Forms. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.