Medvedev Forest massacre
The Medvedev Forest massacre was a mass execution carried out by the NKVD on September 11, 1941. 157 political prisoners incarcerated at Oryol Prison were executed in Medvedev Forest, just outside Oryol, by personal order of Joseph Stalin. Among the victims were Christian Rakovsky, Olga Kameneva, and Maria Spiridonova.
In 1941, the Orel isolation prison contained some five thousand political prisoners. On 11 September 1941, shortly after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, by personal order of Joseph Stalin, 157 political prisoners were executed here.
- Michael Parrish, "Chapter 3 The Orel Massacres, the Killings of Senior Military Officers" in The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953, pp. 69-109
- Alexander Rabinowitch, Maria Spiridonova's "Last Testament", Russian Review, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul., 1995), pp. 424-446