Megophryidae

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Megophryidae
Leptob hasselt M 080208-4534 clobk.jpg
Java spadefoot toad (Leptobrachium hasseltii)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Mesobatrachia
Superfamily: Pelobatoidea
Family: Megophryidae
Bonaparte, 1850
Genera

About 9, see text

MEGOPHRYIDAE range.png
Global range (black)

The Megophryidae (commonly known as the litter frogs) are a large family of frogs native to the warm southeast of Asia, from the Himalayan foothills eastwards, south to Indonesia and the Greater Sunda Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, and extending to the Philippines.[1] As of 2014 it encompasses 180 species of frogs divided between 9 genera.[2] For lack of a better vernacular name, they are commonly called megophryids.

The megophryids are notable for their camouflage, especially those that live in forests, which often look like dead leaves. The camouflage is accurate to the point of some having skin folds that look like leaf veins, and at least one species, the long-nosed horned frog (Megophrys montana) has sharp projections extending past the eye and nose, which disguise the frog shape.[1]

Megophryids range in size from 2 to 12.5 cm (0.79 to 4.92 in) in length. The adults' tongues are noticeably paddle-shaped. Their tadpoles can be found in a variety of waters, but especially ponds and streams. The tadpoles are extremely diverse in form because of the variety of habitats they inhabit.

Genera[edit]

Family Megophryidae includes the following nine genera:[2]

Of these, Borneophrys is monotypic. Genera no longer recognized include Atympanophrys (now in Megophrys) and Vibrissaphora (now in Leptobrachium). Furthermore, genus Xenophrys Günther, 1864 has recently been merged to Megophrys to resolve the paraphyly of Xenophrys, awaiting a better solution. This makes Megophrys the most speciose genus within Megophryidae.[2] However, other sources continue to recognize Xenophrys.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Megophryidae Bonaparte, 1850". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Megophryidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • "Asian Toadfrogs (Megophryidae)". Amy Lathrop. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Jerome A. Jackson, Devra G. Kleiman, James B. Murphy, Dennis A. Thoney, et al. Vol. 6: Amphibians. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2004. p109-117.