From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Melee (disambiguation).
Naval melee at the Battle of Sluys 1340 (BNF Fr. 2643, 15th century)

Melee (/ˈml/ or /ˈmɛl/, French: mêlée [mɛle]; the French spelling is also quite frequent in English writing), generally refers to disorganized close combat in naval or armor battles fought at abnormally close range with little central control once it starts.[citation needed] The French term was borrowed into English in c. 1640 (a re-borrowing of a lost Middle English melle, but the Old French borrowing survives in medley and meddle)

The Battle of Trafalgar became a melee when the British ships broke the French and Spanish line, precipitating a ship-to-ship battle. In this instance, the melee was planned; Admiral Nelson used the superior fighting qualities of his crews to offset the greater French and Spanish numbers.

Until World War I the cavalry regiments of most European armies were trained in two forms of mounted combat: the charge which anticipated the clash of massed horsemen, armed with lances and sabers, and the mêlée. The latter was envisaged as a swirling mass of individual combats after the ranked lines of the charge had been broken up by the shock of initial encounter.[citation needed]

In military aviation, a melee is described as: "An air battle in which several aircraft, both friend and foe, are confusingly intermingled."[1] Melee is also derivative of the verb mix.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Melee. (2004). In B. Kumar , D. De Remer , & D. Marshall (Eds.), An illustrated dictionary of Aviation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from
  2. ^ Mix. (2006). In Word origins. London, United Kingdom: A&C Black. Retrieved from "English originally acquired this word in the form mixt or mixed, a past participial adjective, and did not coin the new verb mix from it until the 16th century. Mixt came via Old French from Latin mixtus, the past participle of the verb miscēre ‘mix’. Derivatives of miscēre to have reached English include miscellaneous [17] and promiscuous [17], and its Vulgar Latin descendant *misculāre ‘mix up’ has given English meddle [14], medley [14], and mêlée [17]. Miscegenation [19] was coined in the USA around 1863 from miscēre and Latin genus ‘race’."