New High German
|New High German|
|Teutsch, Deutsch, Neuhochdeutsch|
|Native to||Germany, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Netherlands, Israel|
|90 to 120 million (1990)
Non-native speakers: 20 million
Official language in
|Austria, European Union, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, co-official language of Namibia until 1990.|
|ISO 639-2||ger (B)
deu – Standard German
sxu – Upper Saxon
sli – Upper Silesian
wym – Wymysorys
frk – Frankish
ltz – Luxembourgeois
vmf – Mainfränkisch
lim – Limburgish
pfl – Pfaelzisch
ksh – Kölsch
pdc – Pennsylvania German
gct – Colonia Tovar German
gsw – Swiss German
swg – Swabian
wae – Walser
bar – Bavarian
cim – Cimbrian
geh – Hutterisch
mhn – Mócheno
ydd – Eastern Yiddish
yih – Western Yiddish
New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language. It is a translation of the German Neuhochdeutsch (Nhd). It includes all of the modern High German dialects since the Baroque period, but is often used as a synonym for Standard German.
The German term was originally coined in 1848 by Jacob Grimm for the period from 1500 to the present day, following on from Middle High German (Mittelhochdeutsch). However, Wilhelm Scherer redefined it as the period from 1650, introducing a new term Frühneuhochdeutsch (Early New High German) for the period 1350-1650, and this is the most widely adopted periodisation of German. In this sense, the beginning of New High German is marked by the "first German novel", Grimmelshausen's Simplicius Simplicissimus.
The New High German period is characterised by the codification of German grammar and the development of a standard language in both writing and speech. Unlike earlier periods, there have been few major changes in phonology or morphology. Rather, the standard language has selected particular features and these choices have then exerted an influence on individual German dialects.
- Jacob Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch: Definition of neuhochdeutsch
- Jacob Grimm, Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (Leipzig 1848)
- Wilhelm Scherer, Zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (Berlin 1868)
- C J Wells, German. A Linguistic History to 1945 Oxford 1987. ISBN 0-19-815809-2
- SIL Ethnologue (2009). 90 million speakers of Standard German; 120 million including Middle and Upper German dialects; 122 million including Yiddish.
- National Geographic Collegiate Atlas of the World. Willard, Ohio: R.R Donnelley & Sons Company. April 2006. pp. 257–270. ISBN 978-0-7922-3662-7. ISBN 0-7922-3662-9. ISBN 0-7922-7976-X (Deluxe). ISBN 978-0-7922-7976-1(Deluxe).