Glottolog

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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the better-known Ethnologue in several positive ways: It attempts to only accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested");[1] it attempts to only classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages, where Glottolog attempts to be comprehensive; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. In some cases, the language names used in the bibliographic entries in Langdoc are identified by ISO or Glottolog code; this is an area of ongoing expansion. Glottolog differs in several negative ways as well: Notably, apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic center, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue, and other online language databases.

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License.

Language families[edit]

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of families, and more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. As of March 2014, it lists 428 families, including isolates, many of which are considered simply unclassified in other sources; languages left unclassified in Glottolog tend to be unclassifiable.

Geographic regions include "Papunesia", a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Malayo-Polynesia.

Name Region Sub–families Languages
Atlantic–Congo Africa, North America 789 1457
Austronesian Africa, Eurasia, Papunesia, South America 662 1291
Indo-European Africa, Australia, Eurasia, North America, Papunesia, South America 279 596
Sino-Tibetan Eurasia 248 496
Afro-Asiatic Africa, Eurasia 195 377
Nuclear Trans New Guinea Papunesia 150 319
Pama–Nyungan Australia, Papunesia 130 242
Otomanguean North America 62 179
Austroasiatic Eurasia 93 174
Tai–Kadai Eurasia 47 99
Dravidian Eurasia 32 85
Arawakan North America, South America 30 83
Tupian South America 32 76
Mande Africa 54 75
Uto–Aztecan North America 33 69
Central Sudanic Africa 34 63
Nuclear Torricelli Papunesia 27 55
Nilotic Africa 28 54
Cariban South America 23 47
Athapaskan–Eyak–Tlingit North America 16 46
Quechuan South America 15 46
Algic North America 16 45
Panoan South America 15 45
Turkic Eurasia 22 44
Uralic Eurasia 20 40
Hmong–Mien Eurasia 18 39
Sepik Papunesia 19 36
Mayan North America 25 33
Nuclear Macro-Je South America 13 31
Lower Sepik–Ramu Papunesia 18 30
Nakh–Daghestanian Eurasia 14 30
Tucanoan South America 20 28
Chibchan North America, South America 17 27
Salishan North America 9 27
Dogon Africa 8 20
Lakes Plain Papunesia 10 20
Mixe–Zoque North America 9 20
Gonga–Gimojan Africa 7 19
Alor–Pantar Papunesia 7 18
Siouan North America 11 18
Morehead–Wasur Papunesia 7 17
Mongolic Eurasia 9 16
North Halmahera Papunesia 6 16
Border Papunesia 4 15
Tor–Orya Papunesia 3 14
Angan Papunesia 7 13
Chapacuran South America 9 13
Japonic Eurasia 9 13
Khoe–Kwadi Africa 11 13
Ndu Papunesia 6 13
Nubian Africa 6 13
Chocoan South America 6 12
Totonacan North America 6 12
Tungusic Eurasia 7 12
Eskimo–Aleut Eurasia, North America 5 11
Geelvink Bay Papunesia 3 11
Iroquoian North America 3 11
Miwok–Costanoan North America 5 11
Western Daly Australia 5 11
Worrorran Australia 2 11
Great Andamanese Eurasia, Papunesia 7 10
Heiban Africa 6 10
Ijoid Africa 6 10
Maban Africa 5 10
Nambiquaran North America, South America 3 10
Nyulnyulan Australia 6 10
Saharan Africa 7 10
Songhay Africa 3 10
Surmic Africa 7 10
Cochimi–Yuman North America 4 9
Dagan Papunesia 0 9
Gunwinyguan Australia 6 9
Sko Papunesia 4 9
South Bougainville Papunesia 2 9
Kwerbic Papunesia 3 8
Mailuan Papunesia 2 8
Narrow Talodi Africa 2 8
Tuu Africa 3 8
Arawan South America 2 7
Barbacoan South America 3 7
Bosavi Papunesia 3 7
Daju Africa 3 7
Huitotoan South America 4 7
Inland Gulf Papunesia 2 7
Koiarian Papunesia 4 7
Kxa Africa 1 7
Matacoan South America 4 7
Muskogean North America 2 7
Pomoan North America 4 7
Tacanan South America 3 7
Baining Papunesia 0 6
Chumashan North America 2 6
East Strickland Papunesia 1 6
Kadugli–Krongo Africa 3 6
Kartvelian Eurasia 3 6
Kiowa–Tanoan North America 2 6
Kiwaian Papunesia 1 6
Left May Papunesia 2 6
Marind Papunesia 3 6
Misumalpan North America 3 6
South Bird's Head Papunesia 1 6
Wakashan North America 4 6
Yeniseian Eurasia 4 6
Yuat–Maramba Papunesia 2 6
Zaparoan South America 4 6
Abkhaz–Adyge Eurasia 2 5
Caddoan North America 3 5
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eurasia 1 5
Goilalan Papunesia 0 5
Guahibo South America 2 5
Guaicuruan South America 3 5
Iwaidjan Proper Australia 1 5
Lengua–Mascoy South America 0 5
Mangarrayi–Maran Australia 2 5
Mirndi Australia 3 5
Nimboran Papunesia 1 5
Nuclear Eleman Papunesia 2 5
Pauwasi Papunesia 2 5
Sahaptian North America 3 5
South Omotic Africa 3 5
Tirio Papunesia 2 5
Turama–Kikori Papunesia 1 5
West Bird's Head Papunesia 2 5
Xincan North America 1 5
Yanomam South America 3 5
Yareban Papunesia 1 5
Chinookan North America 1 4
Chonan South America 2 4
Eastern Jebel Africa 1 4
Eastern Trans-Fly Papunesia 0 4
East Timor–Bunaq Papunesia 2 4
Huavean North America 0 4
Jivaroan South America 1 4
Kamakanan South America 1 4
Koman Africa 2 4
Maiduan North America 0 4
Maningrida Australia 2 4
Mao Africa 2 4
Nadahup South America 2 4
North Bougainville Papunesia 1 4
Sentani Papunesia 1 4
Suki–Gogodala Papunesia 1 4
Tangkic Australia 2 4
Walio Papunesia 1 4
Yokutsan North America 2 4
Yukaghir Eurasia 0 4
Arafundi Papunesia 0 3
Aymara South America 1 3
Bororoan South America 0 3
Cahuapanan South America 1 3
Charruan South America 0 3
Chimakuan North America 0 3
Dizoid Africa 0 3
East Bird's Head Papunesia 1 3
Garrwan Australia 0 3
Giimbiyu Australia 1 3
Jarrakan Australia 0 3
Kalapuyan North America 0 3
Katla–Tima Africa 1 3
Katukinan South America 1 3
Kawesqar South America 1 3
Kayagar Papunesia 1 3
Kolopom Papunesia 1 3
Kuliak Africa 1 3
Kwalean Papunesia 1 3
Mairasi Papunesia 0 3
Mongol–Langam Papunesia 0 3
Peba–Yagua South America 1 3
Puri South America 1 3
Rashad Africa 0 3
Saliban South America 1 3
Shastan North America 0 3
Tama Africa 1 3
Tsimshian North America 1 3
West Bomberai Papunesia 1 3
Yangmanic Australia 0 3
Zamucoan South America 1 3
Amto–Musan Papunesia 0 2
Araucanian South America 0 2
Awin–Pa Papunesia 0 2
Baibai–Fas Papunesia 0 2
Bayono–Awbono Papunesia 0 2
Boran South America 0 2
Bulaka River Papunesia 0 2
Bunaban Australia 0 2
Coosan North America 0 2
Doso–Turumsa Papunesia 0 2
Eastern Daly Australia 0 2
East Kutubu Papunesia 0 2
Furan Africa 0 2
Haida North America 0 2
Harakmbut South America 0 2
Hatam–Mansim Papunesia 0 2
Hibito–Cholon South America 0 2
Huarpean South America 0 2
Hurro-Urartian Eurasia 0 2
Inanwatan Papunesia 0 2
Jarawa–Onge Eurasia 0 2
Jicaquean North America 0 2
Kakua–Nukak South America 0 2
Kariri South America 0 2
Kaure–Narau Papunesia 0 2
Keresan North America 0 2
Konda–Yahadian Papunesia 0 2
Kresh–Aja Africa 0 2
Kwomtari Papunesia 0 2
Lencan North America 0 2
Lepki–Murkim (spurious) Papunesia 0 2
Limilngan Australia 0 2
Manubaran Papunesia 0 2
Marrku–Wurrugu Australia 0 2
Maybrat Papunesia 0 2
Mombum Papunesia 0 2
Monumbo Papunesia 0 2
Namla–Tofanma Papunesia 0 2
North-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 0 2
Northern Daly Australia 0 2
Nyimang Africa 0 2
Pahoturi Papunesia 0 2
Palaihnihan North America 0 2
Piawi Papunesia 0 2
Senagi Papunesia 0 2
Somahai Papunesia 0 2
South-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 0 2
Southern Daly Australia 0 2
Tarascan North America 0 2
Taulil–Butam Papunesia 0 2
Teberan Papunesia 0 2
Temein Africa 0 2
Tequistlatecan North America 0 2
Ticuna–Yuri South America 0 2
Uru–Chipaya South America 0 2
Western Tasmanian Australia 0 2
Wintuan North America 0 2
Yawa Papunesia 0 2
Yuki–Wappo North America 0 2
Chiquitano South America 0 1
Umbugarla Australia 0 1
Abinomn Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Abishira South America 0 (isolate)
Abun Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Adai North America 0 (isolate)
Aikana South America 0 (isolate)
Ainu (Japan) Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Alsea North America 0 (isolate)
Andaqui South America 0 (isolate)
Andoque South America 0 (isolate)
Anem Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Anindilyakwa Australia 0 (isolate)
Ap Ma Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Arutani South America 0 (isolate)
Atacame South America 0 (isolate)
Atakapa North America 0 (isolate)
Banaro Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Bangi Me Africa 0 (isolate)
Basque Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Beothuk North America 0 (isolate)
Berta Africa 0 (isolate)
Betoi South America 0 (isolate)
Bilua Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Birale Africa 0 (isolate)
Birri Africa 0 (isolate)
Bogaya Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Burmeso Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Burushaski Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Camsa South America 0 (isolate)
Candoshi–Shapra South America 0 (isolate)
Canichana South America 0 (isolate)
Cayubaba South America 0 (isolate)
Cayuse North America 0 (isolate)
Centuum Africa 0 (isolate)
Chimariko North America 0 (isolate)
Chiquitano South America 0 (isolate)
Chitimacha North America 0 (isolate)
Chono South America 0 (isolate)
Coahuilteco North America 0 (isolate)
Cofan South America 0 (isolate)
Comecrudo North America 0 (isolate)
Cotoname North America 0 (isolate)
Cuitlatec North America 0 (isolate)
Culli South America 0 (isolate)
Damal Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Dem Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Dibiyaso Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Duna Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Elamite Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Elseng Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Esselen North America 0 (isolate)
Etruscan Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Fasu Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Fulnio South America 0 (isolate)
Gagadu Australia 0 (isolate)
Gilyak Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Guachi South America 0 (isolate)
Guaicurian North America 0 (isolate)
Guamo South America 0 (isolate)
Guato South America 0 (isolate)
Gule Africa 0 (isolate)
Gumuz Africa 0 (isolate)
Guriaso Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Hadza Africa 0 (isolate)
Hattic Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Hruso Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Iberian Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Irantxe South America 0 (isolate)
Itonama South America 0 (isolate)
Jirajaran South America 0 (isolate)
Kaki Ae Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kamula Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kanoe South America 0 (isolate)
Kapori Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Karankawa North America 0 (isolate)
Karok North America 0 (isolate)
Kehu Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kembra Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kibiri Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kimki Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Klamath–Modoc North America 0 (isolate)
Kol (Papua New Guinea) Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Korean Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Kosadle Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kujarge Africa 0 (isolate)
Kunama Africa 0 (isolate)
Kungarakany Australia 0 (isolate)
Kunza South America 0 (isolate)
Kuot Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Kusunda Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Kutenai North America 0 (isolate)
Kwaza South America 0 (isolate)
Laal Africa 0 (isolate)
Lafofa Africa 0 (isolate)
Laragia Australia 0 (isolate)
Lavukaleve Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Leco South America 0 (isolate)
Lule South America 0 (isolate)
Maku South America 0 (isolate)
Maratino North America 0 (isolate)
Massep Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Matanawi South America 0 (isolate)
Mato Grosso Arara South America 0 (isolate)
Mawes Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Meroitic Africa 0 (isolate)
Mimi-Gaudefroy Africa 0 (isolate)
Minkin Australia 0 (isolate)
Mochica South America 0 (isolate)
Molale North America 0 (isolate)
Molof Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Mor (Bomberai Peninsula) Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Morori Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Moseten-Chimane South America 0 (isolate)
Movima South America 0 (isolate)
Mpur Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Muniche South America 0 (isolate)
Mure South America 0 (isolate)
Nara Africa 0 (isolate)
Natchez North America 0 (isolate)
Nihali Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Odiai Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Omurano South America 0 (isolate)
Oti South America 0 (isolate)
Otomaco South America 0 (isolate)
Oyster Bay–Big River–Little Swanport Australia 0 (isolate)
Paez South America 0 (isolate)
Pankararu South America 0 (isolate)
Papi Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Pawaia Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Payagua South America 0 (isolate)
Pele-Ata Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Piraha South America 0 (isolate)
Puelche South America 0 (isolate)
Puinave South America 0 (isolate)
Pume South America 0 (isolate)
Puquina South America 0 (isolate)
Purari Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Pyu Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Ramanos South America 0 (isolate)
Salinan North America 0 (isolate)
Sandawe Africa 0 (isolate)
Sape South America 0 (isolate)
Sause Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Savosavo Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Sechuran South America 0 (isolate)
Seri North America 0 (isolate)
Shabo Africa 0 (isolate)
Shom Peng Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Siuslaw North America 0 (isolate)
Suarmin Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Sulka Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Sumerian Eurasia 0 (isolate)
Tabo Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Taiap Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Takelma North America 0 (isolate)
Tallan South America 0 (isolate)
Tambora Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Tanahmerah Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Taruma South America 0 (isolate)
Taushiro South America 0 (isolate)
Timote-Cuica South America 0 (isolate)
Timucua North America 0 (isolate)
Tinigua South America 0 (isolate)
Tiwi Australia 0 (isolate)
Tonkawa North America 0 (isolate)
Touo Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Trumai South America 0 (isolate)
Tunica North America 0 (isolate)
Tuxa South America 0 (isolate)
Umbugarla Australia 0 (isolate)
Urarina South America 0 (isolate)
Usku Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Vilela South America 0 (isolate)
Wadjiginy Australia 0 (isolate)
Wageman Australia 0 (isolate)
Waorani South America 0 (isolate)
Warao South America 0 (isolate)
Washo North America 0 (isolate)
Wiru Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Xukuru South America 0 (isolate)
Yale Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Yamana South America 0 (isolate)
Yana North America 0 (isolate)
Yele Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Yerakai Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Yetfa Papunesia 0 (isolate)
Yuchi North America 0 (isolate)
Yuracare South America 0 (isolate)
Yurumangui South America 0 (isolate)
Yuwana South America 0 (isolate)
Zuni North America 0 (isolate)

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic lexicon. In addition, Glottolog recognizes 138 sign language, 129 unclassified languages (some completely unattested), 53 pidgins, 22 mixed languages, 7 artificial languages, and 3 auxiliary sign systems, which are not classified into families.

References[edit]

  1. ^ This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from Multi-Tree or other sources without verification.

External links[edit]