|Chief Justice of Iran|
3 June 1979 – 28 June 1981
|Appointed by||Ruhollah Khomeini|
|Preceded by||Nasser Yeganeh|
|Succeeded by||Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili|
|Chairman of the Assembly of Experts|
1 November 1979 – 15 November 1979
|Preceded by||Hussein-Ali Montazeri|
|Succeeded by||Ali Meshkini|
|Leader of IRP|
18 February 1979 – 28 June 1981
|Preceded by||New party|
|Succeeded by||Mohammad-Javad Bahonar|
|Died||28 June 1981
|Political party||Islamic Republican Party|
|Alma mater||Tehran University|
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (1929 – 28 June 1981) (Persian: سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and strong politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution. He was the main architect of the constitution and the administrative structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Dr. Beheshti was the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party, the head of Iran's judicial system and the chairman of the council of Islamic revolution and the Assembly of Experts. He held a Ph.D. in Philosophy and was fluent in English, German and Arabic. Beheshti became assassinated together with more than seventy members of the Islamic Republic party on 28 June 1981. After his death, Ayatollah Khomeini called him a person who was "as a nation for us."
Early years and education
Beheshti was born in Isfahan in 1929. He studied both at the University of Tehran and under Allameh Tabatabaei in Qom. Between 1965 and 1970, he led the Islamic Center in Hamburg where he was responsible for the spiritual leadership of religious Iranian students in Germany and Western Europe. In Hamburg, he also worked with Mohammad Khatami and was among his influences. Since the early 1960s, he was involved in activities against the monarchy and was arrested several times by the Shah's secret police, the SAVAK.
Following the Islamic Revolution, he became one of the original members of the Council of Revolution of Iran and soon its chairman. As vice-president, he played a particularly important role in promoting the principle of velayat-e faqih as the basis for the new constitution. In the first post-revolutionary Iranian parliament, he led the Islamic Republic party together with Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. (He never campaigned for the parliament though, as he was already the head of Iran's Supreme Judicial System). Behesti was the founding member, first general secretary and a central committee member of the party. He was also planning to run for the presidency in the first presidential elections, but withdrew after Ayatollah Khomeini told a delegation of Rafsanjani and Khamenei that he preferred non-clerics as presidents, which led to the Islamic Republic party's endorsement of first Jalaleddin Farsi and then, Hasan Habibi as candidate.
Beheshti died in an attack on 28 June 1981, when a bomb exploded during a party conference (Hafte tir bombing). The Islamic Republic at first claimed the bomb was planted by the Tudeh Party, then by the People's Mujahedin of Iran organization. The assassin was identified, per the official version, as Mohammad Reza Kolahi, an operative of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.
Ayatollah Khomeini was very moved by his death. During the excavations of the bodies of the bombing victims, Khomeini was walking calmly in the garden of his house. Regularly his trustees would update the Ayatollah with new information on the death toll; Khomeini would not show any reaction to this. But when they told Khomeini about the possible death of Ayatollah Beheshti, Khomeini turned around, put his hands on his back and showed some signs of affection.
Ruhollah Khomein stated about "7th Tir" event
The part of Ruhollah Khomeinis message on the occasion of Assassination of Beheshti and 72 Fellowships is: "…Iranian nation lost 72 innocent people in this event and the number is the same as it was in Karbala. Iranian nation is proud of presenting such persons who devoted themselves in the way of Islam and Muslims.
Although we have lost faithful and dear friends, that each of them was like a strong and precious shield for the oppressed people, and although we have lost responsible brothers who were like a steady dike for oppressed people and revolutionary organizations, but our people will make up every shortage by unity and trust in the Almighty Allah…"
Each year a commemoration ceremony is organized on the day of assassination of Behesti.
- Beheshti was seen as the No. 2 figure in Iran after the Islamic revolution
- Shahid Beheshti
- Beheshti Was Himself a Nation for Us
- Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 62. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Samii, Abbas William (1997). "The Shah's Lebanon policy: the role of SAVAK". Middle Eastern Studies 33 (1): 66–91. doi:10.1080/00263209708701142. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim, Jayum A. Jawan and Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs 59 (1). Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- صفحهٔ اول > Pictures > محمدرضا كلاهي، عامل انفجار هفتم تيرماه 60، دفتر حزب جمهوري Shahsawandi
- Video Iran Negah
- "Shahid Beheshti". http://shakhsiatnegar.com/.
- Mahtafar, Tara (28 June 2009). "Beheshti's Ghost". PBS (Tehran). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohammad Beheshti.|
- Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti on the elections on YouTube
- Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti on the constitution on YouTube
- Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti on the Velayat-e faqih on YouTube
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Islamic Republican Party
|Head of Judiciary System of Iran
Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
|Speaker of Assembly of Experts