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Molinology (from Latin: molīna, mill; and Greek λόγος, study) is the study of mills or other mechanical devices which use the kinetic energy of moving water or wind to power machines for such purposes as hammering, grinding, pumping, sawing, pressing or fulling. Muscle-powered mills (by both animals and humans) are also considered to be part of the field. The term was coined in 1965 by the Portuguese industrial historian João Miguel dos Santos Simões.

More particularly, molinology aims to retain the knowledge of those traditional engines which have been rendered obsolete by modern technical and economic trends.

Cultural and scientific interest in molinology is maintained by The International Molinological Society (TIMS), a non-profit organisation which brings together more than six hundred members, mostly from Europe and the USA. It was founded in 1973 after earlier international symposia in 1965 and 1969.

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