Moskit missile at MAKS, Zhukovskiy, 1999
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1983 the first ship with 3M80 actually ready in 1978, formally adopted in 1981 |
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russia, China|
|Weight||4,500 kg (9,900 lb)|
|Length||9.745 m (31.97 ft)|
|Diameter||0.8 m (2.6 ft)|
|Warhead||320 kg (710 lb) explosive or 120 kt of TNT fission-fusion thermonuclear|
|Engine||Four ramjets (solid fuel rocket on air-to-surface version)|
|Wingspan||2.10 m (6.9 ft)|
|120 km (75 mi)|
|Flight altitude||20 m (66 ft) above sea level|
|inertial guidance plus terminal active radar homing|
|naval ships, fixed-wing aircraft|
The P-270 Moskit (Russian: П-270 «Москит»; English: Mosquito) is a Russian supersonic ramjet powered cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M80, and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile system was designed by the Raduga Design Bureau during the 1970s as a follow up to the "SS-N-9 Siren". The Moskit was originally designed to be ship-launched, but variants have been adapted to be launched from land (modified trucks), underwater (submarines) and air (reportedly the Sukhoi Su-33, a naval variant of the Sukhoi Su-27), as well as on the Lun-class ekranoplan. The missile can carry conventional and nuclear warheads.
The exact classification of the missile is unknown, with varying types reported. This uncertainty is due to the secrecy surrounding an active military weapon. The Moskit is one of the missiles known by the NATO codename SS-N-22 Sunburn. It reaches a speed of Mach 3 at high altitude and Mach 2.2 at low-altitude. This speed is triple the speed of the subsonic American Harpoon. When slower missiles, like the Harpoon or the French Exocet are used, the maximum theoretical response time for the defending ship is 120 to 150 seconds.
This long response time provides time to launch countermeasures and employ jamming before deploying "hard" defense systems such as missiles and close-in weapon systems. But the high speed of the 3M82 "Mosquito" missiles reduce the maximum theoretical response time for the defending ship to 25 to 30 seconds. This short response time makes jamming and countermeasures very difficult, and firing missiles and quick-firing artillery even more difficult. The Moskit was designed to be employed against smaller NATO naval groups in the Baltic Sea (Danish and German) and the Black Sea (Turkish) and non-NATO vessels in the Pacific (Japanese, South Korean, etc.), and to defend the Russian mainland against NATO amphibious assault.
Variants of the missile have been designated 3M80M, 3M82 (Moskit M). The P-270 designation is believed to be the initial product codename for the class of missile, with the Russian Ministry of Defense GRAU indices (starting with 3M) designating the exact variant of the missile. The 3M80 was its original model. The 3M80M model (also termed 3M80E for export) was a 1984 longer range version of the missile, with the latest version with the longest range being the 3M82 Moskit M. The ASM-MSS / Kh-41 variant is the air-launched version of the missile.
- Launch range:
- min: 10–12 km
- Maximum firing range, km:
90 (is no more than 120)- 3M80 - starting from a surface ship (NC)
250- 3M80 - start from the plane
120- 3M80E - start with NC
140- 3M80MVE - start with NC for low-altitude trajectory (140 km if the height of the flight = 20 m)
240- 3M80MVE - start with NC for a combined trajectory
- Missile flight speed: 2,800 km/h
- Missile cruising altitude: 10 – 20 m (low-altitude trajectory), before 7 m - for the attack at the target.
- Launch sector relative to ship’s lateral plane, ang.deg: ±60
- Launch readiness time:
- From missile power-on till first launch: 50 seconds
- From combat-ready status: 11 seconds
- Inter-missile launch time (in a salvo): 5 seconds
- Launch weight:
- 3M-80E missile 4,150 kg
- 3M-80E1 missile 3,970 kg
- Warhead type: penetrator
- Warhead weight: 300 kg (explosives 150)
- Length: 9.385 m
- Body diameter: 0.8 m
- Wing span: 2.1 m
- Folded wing/empennage span: 1.3 m
- "Moskit / SS-N-22 Sunburn". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- DTIG: Russian Soviet Naval Missiles
- "eDefense - Detect. Decide. Shoot. Survive.". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- FAS report
- Global Security report
- Moskit Online Photoalbum from BSF
- DTIG.org report (PDF)
- "Asia’s Advanced Precision Guided Munitions" (PDF)
- Missile analysis (PDF)
- Start from the plane for a combined trajectory (concept of combat employment). (Ru)