Observation balloon

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An observation balloon being launched from the USS Arizona. This balloon has a two-man crew that performed artillery spotting in support of the battleship's main guns.

Observation balloons are balloons that are employed as aerial platforms for intelligence gathering and artillery spotting. Their use began during the French Revolutionary Wars, reaching their zenith during World War I, and they continue in limited use today.

Historically, observation balloons were filled with hydrogen. The French colonel Charles Renard developed a mobile system with a trailer in 1880. Effectiveness was considerably improved with a new more aerodynamic design in 1914, by French engineer Albert Caquot. During World War I, from 1914 to 1918, both the Allies and Germany employed balloons, generally a few miles behind the front lines. The balloons were fabric envelopes filled with hydrogen gas, whose flammable nature led to the destruction of hundreds of balloons on both sides. Observers manning these observation balloons frequently had to use a parachute to evacuate their balloon when it came under attack. To avoid the potentially flammable consequences of hydrogen, observation balloons after World War I were often filled with non-flammable helium.

Typically, balloons were tethered to a steel cable attached to a winch that reeled the gasbag to its desired height (often above 3,000 feet) and retrieved it at the end of an observation session.

History[edit]

The battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794, saw the first military use of an aircraft (L'Entreprenant) that had decisive influence on the battle.

The first military use of observation balloons was by the French Aerostatic Corps during the French Revolutionary Wars, the very first time during the Battle of Fleurus (1794).[1] The oldest preserved observation balloon, L'Intrépide, is on display in a Vienna museum. They were also used by both sides during the American Civil War (1861–65)[2] and continued in use during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71).[3]

On 8 July 1867, Argentine Army Staff Sergeant Roberto A. Chodasiewicz used a balloon on the Paraguayan War during the battle of Humaitá.[4]

Balloons were first deployed by the British Army's Royal Engineers during the expeditions to Bechuanaland and Suakin in 1885. They were also deployed during the Second Boer War (1899–1902), where they were used in artillery observation at the Battle of Magersfontein and during the Siege of Ladysmith.

World War I was the highpoint for the military use of observation balloons. The British, despite their experience in late 1800s Africa, were behind developments, using spherical balloons. These were quickly replaced by versions of Italian and then French designs, which were flyable and could operate in more extreme weather conditions.[5] During World War I, artillery had developed to the point where it was capable of engaging targets beyond the visual range of a ground-based observer. Positioning artillery observers at altitude on balloons allowed them to see targets at greater range than they could on the ground. This allowed the artillery to take advantage of its increased range. The balloons were deployed on land and at sea for use in

  • Observing enemy troops
  • Locating submarines[6]
  • Artillery spotting
Gas balloons in 1919.
Frank Luke and a German observation balloon that he shot down in 1918
Close-up view of an American Major in the basket of an observation balloon flying over territory near front lines during World War I.

The idiom "The balloon's going up!" as an expression for impending battle is derived from the very fact that an observation balloon's ascent likely signaled a preparatory bombardment for an offensive.

Because of their importance as observation platforms, balloons were defended by anti-aircraft guns, groups of machine guns for low altitude defence and patrolling fighter aircraft. Attacking a balloon was a risky venture but some pilots relished the challenge. The most successful were known as balloon busters, including such notables as Belgium's Willy Coppens, Germany's Friedrich Ritter von Röth, America's Frank Luke, and the Frenchmen Léon Bourjade, Michel Coiffard and Maurice Boyau. Many expert balloon busters were careful not to go below 1,000 feet (300 m) in order to avoid exposure to anti-aircraft guns and machine-guns.

World War I observation crews were the first to use parachutes, long before they were adopted by fixed wing aircrews. These were a primitive type, where the main part was in a bag suspended from the balloon, with the pilot only wearing a simple body harness around his waist, with lines from the harness attached to the main parachute in the bag. When the balloonist jumped, the main part of the parachute was pulled from the bag, with the shroud lines first, followed by the main canopy. This type of parachute was first adopted by the Germans and then later by the British and French for their observation balloon crews.[7]

The type commonly used was the kite balloon. Its shape stabilised it by causing it to point into the wind.[8] Examples of British kite balloon ships include HMS Manica, HMS Hector and HMS Canning.

Observation balloons also were used in substantial numbers during World War II, particularly by the U.S. Navy for anti-submarine work. [9] Observation balloons also played a role during the Cold War. Project Mogul used high-altitude observation balloons to monitor Soviet nuclear tests. They have been used by US and coalition military forces in Iraq and in Afghanistan.[10][11] They are tethered to outposts near bases with cameras attached to the underside.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thompson, Holland (1920). The World's greatest war from the outbreak of the war to the Treaty of Versailles. New York: Grolier. p. 243. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  2. ^ "Balloons in the American Civil War". Born of Dreams - Inspired by Freedom. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  3. ^ E. Charles Vivian (November 1997). "Kite Balloons". A History of Aeronautics. Seattle, Washington, USA.: The World Wide School. Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  4. ^ Aviation Army History
  5. ^ Kershaw, Andrew (editor) The First War Planes London Phoebus 1972 p. 46
  6. ^ Kite Balloons in Escorts. Washington, DC: Washington Government Printing Office. 1918-11-01. O. N. I. Publication No. 46. Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  7. ^ May 1931, Popular Mechanics photo of WW1 British Royal Navy observation balloon gondola with external bag parachutes first used by Germany and then later by both the UK and France
  8. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%201131.html
  9. ^ Roy A. Grossnick, (ed.). Kite Balloons to Airships: The Navy's Lighter-Than-Air Experience (PDF). Charles Cooney. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy -- Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  10. ^ "The Year in Pictures: Whales, Blimps and Saturn". Time. 
  11. ^ Pincus, Walter (20 August 2009). "High-Tech Balloon to Help Forces Keep Watch". The Washington Post. 

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