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The Oraon tribes उरांव or Kurukh कुड़ुख tribe (Kurukh: Oṛāōn and Kuṛuḵẖ), also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are tribal aborigines inhabiting various states across central and eastern India as well as Bangladesh. Traditionally, Oraons depended on the forest and farms for their ritual and economic livelihood, but in recent times, a few of them have become mainly settled agriculturalists. Small numbers of Oraons have migrated to the northeastern part of India, where they are mainly employed in tea estates.
According to the Indian Anthropological Society, Konkan is said to be the original home of the Kurukh tribes, from whence they migrated to Northern India. A Kurukh substratum is very prominent in the language of the Konkan or the Konkani language.
The Kurukh or Oraons are the tribals of Chota Nagpur Plateau. Oraon appears to have been assigned to them as a nickname by their masters, possibly with reference to their many migrations and proneness to roam, however, they prefer to be called Kurukhar.
They are divided into many totemistic clans. They live in Chota Nagpur plateau of east-central India like Bihar, In Raigarh, Surguja, Jashpur districts of Chhattisgarh; Ranchi District of Jharkhand; Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal; Sundargarh District of Odisha, and also in Bangladesh. A sizable number of Oraon have migrated to the northeastern part of India, where they are mainly employed in tea estates of West Bengal, Assam, and Tripura. also in west Bengal at Darjeeling district
The Oraon people have a rich range of folk songs, dances and tales, as well as traditional musical instruments. Both men and women participate in dances, which are performed at social events and festivals. Mandar, nagara and kartal are the main musical instruments. During festival or any occasion of celebration they consume an alcoholic drink called "Handiya". Handiya is basically a rice wine made from fermented rice. Handiya is distributed among every man and woman of the village in a "bowl of leaves", which is called "Dona".
The Oraon Adivasi followed the 'Sarna' Dharam (Sarna religion) which has tenets similar to Hindu religion. Some of the groups started following Sarna in Hindu style, as Bishnu Bhagats, Bacchinda Bhagats, Karmu Bhagats and Tana Bhagats. The Oraons have established several Sarna sects. Oraons worship Mahaedeo (a name given for Dharmesh). Oraon believe every thing in nature has its own deity or god, an animist philosophy which is similar to Hindu beliefs.
Tana Bhagats were formed by Oaron saints Jatra Bhagat and Turia Bhagat. The Tana Bhagats opposed the taxes imposed on them by the British and they staged a Satyagraha (civil disobedience movement) even before Gandhi's satyagraha movement. All Tana Bhagats were the followers of Mahatma Gandhi during the Independence movement and participated in the movement. Tana Bhagats still wear khadi kurta, dhoti and Gandhi topi (cap) with tricoloured flag in their topi. All the Tana Bhagats are performing puja to the Mahadeo and the tricolour with charakha symbol on it fixed at their courtyard.
Most of population are Sarna (following Sarna Dharma, in which Dharmesh is the supreme almighty). Sarna perform religious rituals under the shade of a sacred grove. sacred grove means grove of tree of particular religion. Sarna worship The Sun as Biri and the Moon as Chando. Chando Biri are the words which been used in the Sarna Puja. They called the earth Dharti Aayo (Earth as mother). This practice is very closely connected to the practices of Hindu religion. Among Christian Oraons, there are Roman Catholic Oroans and Protestant Oraon, the latter having several denominations.
- Indian Anthropological Society (1986). Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society, Volumes 21-22. Indian Anthropological Society. pp. See page 75.
- Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The tribes and castes of Bombay, Volume 1. Asian Educational Services. pp. 195–198. ISBN 81-206-0630-2.
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- Dalton E T, The Oraons, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, 1872. Section 1, page 215.
- Kurukh, Tribalzone.net
- Ferdinand Hahn (1906). Blicke in die Geisteswelt der heidnischen Kols: Sammlung von Sagen, Märchen und Liedern der Oraon in Chota Nagpur. C. Bertelsmann. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Jha, P. 41 India and Nepal
- Ghosh, Abhik (2003). History and Culture of the Oraon Tribe : Some Aspects of Their Social Life. Mohit. p. 237. ISBN 81-7445-196-X.
- Sinlung Sinlung - Indian tribes