Order of the German Eagle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Order of the German Eagle
Service Cross of the German Eagle.png
Neck badge of the Order of the German Eagle
Awarded by Reichsadler der Deutsches Reich (1933–1945).svgNazi Germany
Type Order
Eligibility German citizens and foreign nationals
Awarded for military and civil services
Status Obsolete
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Six
Established 1 May 1937

The Order of the German Eagle (German: Verdienstorden vom Deutschen Adler) was an award of the German Nazi regime, predominantly to foreign diplomats. The Order was instituted on 1 May 1937 by Adolf Hitler.[1] It ceased to be awarded following the collapse of the Nazi Government at the end of World War II.

Criteria[edit]

The Order of the German Eagle was a diplomatic and honorary award given to prominent foreigners, particularly diplomats, who were considered sympathetic to Nazism.

In addition to awards to non-Germans, the Reich Foreign Minister and the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia received a 'Special Degree' (Sonderstufe), with identical insignia to the Grand Cross of the Order. Accordingly, Foreign Minister Constantin von Neurath, received the Special Degree of the Order, with a further award to Joachim von Ribbentrop on his appointment as Foreign Minister in 1938 .[2] In 1943 Dr. Wilhelm Frick received the Special Degree after becoming Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. [3]

Appearance and classes[edit]

The Cross is based on the Maltese Cross with German Eagles at each corner carrying a swastika. For military recipients the Order also featured crossed swords.[1] The cross was suspended from a 46 mm red ribbon with stripes in black, red and white. The award, in the first two classes, also came in the form of a silver or gold eight pointed star, with corresponding white Maltese Cross and gold eagles centered. The overall appearance and name of the Order was an imitation of the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle and Order of the Red Eagle.

From 1937 to 1943 the order was presented in six classes:[2]

  1. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle with star (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  2. Order of the German Eagle with Star (Deutscher Adlerorden mit Stern)
  3. Order of the German Eagle 1st Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Erste Stufe)
  4. Order of the German Eagle 2nd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Zweite Stufe)
  5. Order of the German Eagle 3rd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Dritte Stufe)
  6. German Medal of Merit (Deutsche Verdienstmedaille)

A unique Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold with Diamonds (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens in Gold und Brillanten) was also awarded to Benito Mussolini on 25 September 1937.[2]

On 27 December 1943 the Order was reorganised into nine classes:[2]

  1. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold with Star (Goldenes Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  2. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle with Star (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  3. Order of the German Eagle 1st Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Erste Stufe)
  4. Order of the German Eagle 2nd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Zweite Stufe)
  5. Order of the German Eagle 3rd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Dritte Stufe)
  6. Order of the German Eagle 4th Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Vierte Stufe)
  7. Order of the German Eagle 5th Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Fünfte Stufe)
  8. Silver Medal of Merit (Silberne Verdienstmedaille)
  9. Bronze Medal of Merit (Bronzene Verdienstmedaille)

Recipients[edit]

Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold with Diamonds

Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold with Star

The Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold was awarded thirteen times:[2]

Other classes

Number awarded unknown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "AWM Collection Record: RELAWM30337A". Australian War Memorial. September 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i . Wendel, Marcus. "Holders of the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold". Axis History Factbook. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  3. ^ . David Littlejohn and Colonel C. M. Dodkins. (1968). Orders, Decorations, Medals and Badges of the Third Reich. R.James Bender Publishing California. p. 20 confirms all 3 German recipients. 
  4. ^ Geoffrey G. Jones, Adrian Brown, "Thomas J. Watson, IBM and Nazi Germany", Harvard Business School Case 9-807-133, October 2008
  5. ^ Cabadas, Joe (2004). River Rouge. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7603-1708-2.  cited in Joe Cabadas (2008). River Rouge. Google Book Search. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  6. ^ Einar W. Juva: "Rudolf Walden 1872-1946" page 621