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IUPAC name
Other names
para-Aminopropiophenone; PAPP
ChemSpider 6034
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 6270
Molar mass 149.19 g·mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

4'-Aminopropiophenone (para-aminopropiophenone or PAPP) is a chemical compound. It is highly toxic, and can cause injury or death upon physical contact or inhalation of fumes.[1]

PAPP is being investigated in New Zealand and Australia as a way of controlling introduced predators.[2] PAPP was developed to control stoats, weasels, and feral cats, and registered for use in New Zealand in 2011.[3] PAPP is being investigated in Australia for use on feral cats, red foxes and wild dogs.[4] It kills by preventing red blood cells from carrying oxygen. PAPP kills stoats directly, but not possums and rats. It is approved for use in paste form or in fresh minced meat, so will only provide effective stoat control as part of intensive ground control. The risk of by-kill is likely to be low since it does not leave residues in the environment.

The toxicity of PAPP is derived from its action on circulating hemoglobin, rapidly converting it to methemoglobin (similar to nitrate poisoning). As methemoglobin is not capable of transporting oxygen like hemoglobin, elevated blood levels (methemoglobinemia) will result in hypoxia, seizures, coma, and death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration.[5]


  1. ^ Propiophenone, 4'-amino- at cameochemicals.noaa.gov.
  2. ^ Dilks, P; Shapiro, L.; Greene, T.; Kavermann, MJ; Eason, CT; Murphy, EC (2011). "Field evaluation of para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) for controlling stoats (Mustela erminea) in New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Zoology 38 (2): 143. doi:10.1080/03014223.2010.537668. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  3. ^ Shapiro, L., Eason, C.T., Murphy, E., Dilks, P., Hix, S., Ogilvie, S.C. and MacMorran, D. (2010). R.M. Timm and K.A. Fagerstone, ed. "Para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) research, development, registration, and application for humane predator control in New Zealand". Proc. 24th Vertebrate Pest Conference: 108–114. 
  4. ^ Denny, Elizabeth; Dickman, Christopher (2010). Review of cat ecology and management strategies in Australia (PDF). p. 40. 
  5. ^ Elaine C. Murphy, Charles T. Eason, Steve Hix and Duncan B. Macmorran (2007). G. W. Witmer, W. C. Pitt, K. A. Fagerstone, ed. "Developing a New Toxin for Potential Control of Feral Cats, Stoats, and Wild Dogs in New Zealand" (PDF). Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium (Fort Collins, CO). 

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